Objective Meat Quality and Volatile Components as a Function of Cooking Temperature in Beef Longissimus lumborum

  • Ji, Joong-Ryong (Paek Kwang C&C Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Park, Kyung-Mi (Department of Animal Science, Insititute of Agricultural Science and Technology Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Choe, Ho-Sung (Department of Animal Science, Insititute of Agricultural Science and Technology Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Hwang, In-Ho (Department of Animal Science, Insititute of Agricultural Science and Technology Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 2010.03.23
  • Accepted : 2010.04.22
  • Published : 2010.06.30


The present paper describes the effect of cooking temperature on objective meat qualities and volatile components in beef longissimus lumborum. Twenty samples of lumbar vertebrae longissimus muscle from Australian Black Angus (grain-fed and chiller aged for 29 d) were screened. Samples were cooked at 50, 70 or $90^{\circ}C$ in a pre-heated water bath for 1 h and uncooked raw samples were used as control. The results revealed that elevating the heating temperature from 50 to $90^{\circ}C$ led to a significant (p<0.05) increase in WB-shear force, total energy required for WB-shear force, cooking loss, pH and soluble collagen content, whereas a significant (p<0.05) linear decrease in protein solubility was observed. The results also revealed that the WB-shear force at $70^{\circ}C$ was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that observed at $50^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$. However, the effect of temperature on cooking loss and protein solubility was notably (p<0.05) higher at $70^{\circ}C$. The detectable volatile components were mostly produced from fat oxidation, and temperature effects on the generation of volatile components were significantly (p<0.05) greater for aldehydes (hexanal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and octanal) than for ketones and hydrocarbons (hexane, benzene, decan, toluene and 3-methylnonane).


beef;end-point temperature;WB-shear force;protein degradation;flavor component


  1. American Meat Science Association (1995) Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation and instrumental tenderness measurements of fresh meat: National Live Stock and Meat Board. Chicago.
  2. Ames, J. M., Guy, R. C. E., and Kipping, G. J. (2001) Effect of pH and temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in cysteine/reducing sugar/starch mixtures during extrusion cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1885-1894.
  3. Ames, J. M., Guy, R. C. E., and Kipping, G. J. (2001) Effect of pH and temperature on the formation of volatile compounds in cysteine/reducing sugar/starch mixtures during extrusion cooking. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 1885-1894.
  4. APGS (2005) Korean Beef grading system. Animal Products Grading Service. National Livestock Co-operatives Federation, Seoul, Korea.
  5. Ba, H. V., Oliveros, M. C., Ryu, K. S., and Hwang, I. H. (2010) Development of analysis condition and detection of volatile compounds from cooked Hanwoo beef by SPMEGC/ MS analysis. Korean J. Food Sci. 30, 73-86.
  6. Badiani, A., Stipa, S., Bitossi, F., Gatta, P. P., Vignola, G., and Chizzolini, R. (2002) Lipid composition, retention and oxidation in fresh and completely trimmed beef muscles as affected by common culinary practices. Meat Sci. 60, 169- 186.
  7. Bendall, J. R. (1973) Postmortem changes in muscle. In G. H. Bourne, Structure and function of muscle (2nd ed., Vol. II, Part 2). Academic Press, New York.
  8. Boles, J. A. and Swan, J. E. (2002) Heating method and final temperature affect processing characteristics of beef semimembranosus muscle. Meat Sci. 62, 107-112.
  9. Bou, R., Guardiola, F., Grau, A., Grimpa, S., Manich, A., Barroeta, A. et al. (2001) Influence of dietary fat source, atocopherol, and ascorbic acid supplementation on sensory quality of dark chicken meat. Poult. Sci. 80, 800-807.
  10. Bouton, P. E., Harris, P. V., and Ratcliff, D. (1981) Effect of cooking temperature and time on the shear properties of meat. J. Food Sci. 46, 1082-1087.
  11. Bouton, P. E., Harris, P. V., and Shorthose, W. R. (1975) Changes in shear parameters of meat associated with structural changes produced by aging, cooking, and myofibrillar contraction. J. Food Sci. 40, 1122-1126.
  12. Bredie, W. L. P., Mottram, D. S., and Guy, R. C. E. (1998) Aroma Volatiles Generated during Extrusion Cooking of Maize Flour. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46. 1479-1487.
  13. Christensen, M., Purslow, P. P., and Larsen, L. M. (2000) The effect of cooking temperature on mechanical properties of whole meat, single muscle fibers and perimysial connective tissue. Meat Sci. 55, 301-307.
  14. Conrad, M. E. and Umbreit, J. N. (2000) Iron absorption and transport-An update. Am J. Hematol. 64, 287-298.<287::AID-AJH9>3.0.CO;2-L
  15. Cristina M. M. Alfaia, Susana P. Alves, Anabela F. Lopes, Maria J. E. Fernandes, Ana S. H. Costa, Carlos M. G. A. Fontes, Matilde L. F. Castro, Rui J. B. Bessa, and José A. M. Prates. (2010) Effect of cooking methods on fatty acids, conjugated isomers of linoleic acid and nutritional quality of beef intramuscular fat. Meat Sci. 84, 769-777.
  16. Dinardo, M., Buck, E. M., and Clydesdale, F. M. (1984) Effect of extended cook times on certain physical and chemical characteristics of beef prepared in a water bath. J. Food Sci. 3, 844-848.
  17. El-Sayed, A. M. (2008) The Pherobase: Database of insect pheromones and semiochemicals. Available from http://www. Accessed on Oct. 18, 2009.
  18. Elmore, J. S., Campo, M. M, Enser, M., and Mottram, D. S. (2002) Effect of lipid composition on meat-like model systems containing cystein, ribose and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Agri. Food Chem. 50, 1126-1132.
  19. Elmore, J. S., Mottram, D. S., Enser, M., and Wood, J. D. (1999) Effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 1619-1625.
  20. Elmore, J. S., Warren, H. E., Mottram, D. S., Scollan, N. D., Enser, M., Richardson, R. I., and Wood, J. D. (2004) A comparison of the aroma volatiles and fatty acid compositions of grilled beef muscle from Aberdeen Angus and Holstein-Friesian steers fed diets based on silage or concentrates. Meat Sci. 68, 27-33.
  21. Fang, S. H., Nishimura, T., and Takahashi, K. (1999) Relationship between development of intramuscular connective tissue and toughness of pork during growth of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77, 120-130.
  22. Foster, W., Li, Y., Usas, A., Somogyi, G., and Huard, J. (2003) Gamma interferon as an antifibrosis agent in skeletal muscle. J. Orthop Res. 21, 798-804.
  23. Gorraiz, C., Beriain, M. J., Chasco, J., and Insausti, K. (2002) Effect of aging time on volatile compounds, odor, and flavor of cooked beef from pirenaica and Friesian bulls and heifers. J. Food Sci. 67, 916-922.
  24. Hamm, R. (1986) Functional properties of the myofibrillar system and their measurements. In P. J. Bechtel (ed), Muscle as food, Academic Press, New York, pp. 135-199.
  25. Hill, F. (1966) The solubility of intramuscular collagen in meat animals of various ages. J. Food Sci. 31, 161-166.
  26. Huang, T. C. and Ho, C. T. (2001) Chapter 4-flavor of meat products. In Meat Science and application. Edited by Hui, Y. H., Nip, W. K., Rogers, R. W., and Young, O. A., Marcel Dekker, New York.
  27. Hwang, I. H., Park, B. Y., Kim, J. H. Cho, S. H., and Lee, J. M. (2004) Effects of pre-slaughter fasting and chiller ageing on objective meat quality in longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, and triceps brachii muscles of Korean native black pigs. Korean J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 46, 405-414.
  28. Insausti, K., Beriain, M. J., Gorraiz, C., and Purroy, A. (2002) Volatile Compounds of Raw Beef from 5 Local Spanish Cattle Breeds Stored Under Modified Atmosphere. Food Sci. 67, 1580-1589.
  29. Jeremiah, L. E. and Gibson, L. L. (2003) Cooking influences on the palatability of roasts from the beef hip. Food Res. Int. 36, 1-9.
  30. Judge, M. D., Aberle, E. D., Cross, H. R., and Schanbacher, B. D. (1984) Thermal shrinkage temperature of intramuscular collagen of bulls and steers. J. Anim. Sci. 59, 706-709.
  31. Kherif S, Lafuma C and Dehaupas M. (1999) Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in regenerating skeletal muscle: a study in experimentally injured and mdx muscles. Dev. Biol. 205, 158-170.
  32. Kikuhara, K. and Hirooka, H. (2009) Application of a Simulation Model for Dairy Cattle Production Systems Integrated with Forage Crop Production: the Effects of Whole Crop Rice Silage Utilization on Nutrient Balances and Profitability. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 216-224.
  33. Kim, Y. H., Nam, K. C., and Ahn, D. U. (2002) Volatile profiles, Lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of irradiated meat from different animal species. Meat Sci. 61, 257- 265.
  34. KMTA. (2010) Statistics for meat consumption in Korea by years. Available from Assessed on Mar. 12, 2010.
  35. Kolar, K. (1990) Colorimetric determination of hydroxyproline as measure of collagen content in meat and meat products: NMKL collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 73, 54-57.
  36. Laakonen, E. (1973) Factors affecting tenderness during heating of meat. Adv. Food Res. 20, 257-323.
  37. Lawrie, R. A., and Ledward, D. A. (2006) Lawrie's meat science (17th ed.). Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge.
  38. Lepetit, J. (2008). Collagen contribution to meat toughness: Theoretical aspects. Meat Sci. 80, 960-967.
  39. Lewis, G. J., and Purslow, P. P. (1991) The effect of marination and cooking on the mechanical properties of intramuscular connective tissue. J. Muscle Foods. 2, 177-195.
  40. Li, C. B., Zhou, G. H., and Xu, X. L. (2008) Dynamical changes of beef intramuscular connective tissue and muscle fiber during heating and their effects on beef shear force. Food Bioprocess Technol. DOI 10.1007/s117-3.
  41. Li, C. B., Zhuo, G. H., and Xu, X. L. (2008) Dynamical changes of beef intramuscular connective tissue and muscle fibre during heating and their effects on beef shear force. Food Bioprocess Technol. DOI 10.1007/s11947-008-0117-3.
  42. Liu, Y. and Chen, Y. R. (2001) Analysis of visible reflectance spectra of stored, cooked and diseased chiken meats. Meat Sci. 58, 395-401.
  43. Machiels, D., Istasse, L., and Ruth, S. M. (2004) Gas chromatography- olfactometry analysis of beef meat originating from differently fed Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus bulls. Food Chem. 86, 377-383.
  44. Machlick, S. M. and Draudt, H. N. (1963) The effect of heating time on the shear of beef semitendinosus muscle. J. Food Sci. 28, 711-718.
  45. McCormick, R. J. (1999) Extracellular modifications to muscle collagen: Implications for meat quality. Poult. Sci. 78, 785-791.
  46. McLafferty, F. W. (2000) Wiley registry of mass spectral data, 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  47. Meinert, L., Andersen, L. T., Bredie, W. L. P., Bjergegaard, C., and Aaslyng, M. D. (2007) Chemical and sensory characterisation of pan-fried pork flavour: Interactions between raw meat quality, ageing and frying temperature. Meat Sci. 75, 229-242.
  48. Moon, S. Y., Margaret, A., Cliff, M. A., and Li-Chan, E. C. (2006) Odour-active components of simulated beef flavour analysed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry and -olfactometry. Food Res. Int. 39, 294-308.
  49. NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. (2009) NIST Chemistry WebBook. Available from Accessed on Oct. 18, 2009.
  50. Obuz, E., Dikeman, M. E., Grobbel, J. P., Stephens, J. W., and Loughin, T. M. (2004) Beef longissimus lumborum, biceps femoris, and deep pectoralis Warner-Bratzler shear force is affected differently by endpoint temperature, cooking method, and USDA quality grade. Meat Sci. 68, 243-248.
  51. Obuza, E., Dikeman, M. E., and Loughinb, T. M. (2003) Effects of cooking method, reheating, holding time, and holding temperature on beef longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris tenderness. Meat Sci. 65, 841-851.
  52. Oliveros, M. C. R., Park, K. M. Kwon, E. G., Choi, N. J., Chang, J. S., I. H. Hwang. (2009) Carcass Traits and the Quality of Meat from Cattle Finished on Diets Containing Barley. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 1594-1608.
  53. Oyama, K., Fujiwara, S., Katsuta, T., Honda, T., and Mukai, F. (2009) Number of Calves Produced at Specified Age as a Measure of Reproductive Performance in Beef Cattle under Artificially-Inseminated Breeding Scheme. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 162-167.
  54. Parrish, F. C. Jr., Olson, D. G., Miner, B. E., and Rust, R. E. (1973). Effect of degree of marbling and internal temperature of doneness on beef rib steaks. J. Anim. Sci. 37, 430-434.
  55. Paul, P. C., McCrae, S. E., and Hofferber, L. M. (1973) Heat induced changes in extractability of beef muscle collagen. J. Food Sci. 38, 66-68.
  56. Purchas, R. W., Simcock, D. C., Knight, T. W., and Wilkinson, B. H. P. (2003) Variation in the form of iron in beef and lamb meat and losses of iron during cooking and storage. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 38, 827-837.
  57. Purchas, R. W., Rutherfurd, S. M., Pearce, P. D., Vather, R., and Wilkinson, B. H. P. (2004) Concentrations in beef and lamb of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q10, and creatine. Meat Sci. 66, 629-637.
  58. Raes, K., Balcaen, A., Dirinck, P., Winne, A. D., Claeys, E., Demeyer, D., and Smet, S. D. (2003) Meat quality, fatty acid composition and flavour analysis in Belgian retail beef. Meat Sci. 65, 1237-1246.
  59. Rodriguez-Estrada, M. T., Penazzi, G., Caboni, M. F., Bertacco, G., and Lercker, G. (1997) Effect of different cooking methods on some lipid and protein components of hamburgers. Meat Sci. 45, 365-375.
  60. Rule, D. C. (1997) Direct transesterification pf total fatty acids of adipose tissue, and of freeze-dried muscle and liver with boron-trifluoride in methanol. Meat Sci., 46, 23-32.
  61. SAS. (1997) SAS STAT User's Guide. Statistics. Cary NC.
  62. Serra, X., Gil, M., Gispert, M., Guerrero, L., Oliver, M. A., Sa ccudo, C., Campo, M. M., Panea, B., Olleta, J. L., Quintanilla, R., and Piedrafita, J. (2004) Characterization of young bulls of the Bruna dels Pirineus cattle breed (selected from old Brown Swiss) in relation to carcass, meat quality and biochemical traits. Meat Sci. 66, 425-436.
  63. Susan Brewer, M. and Novakofski, J. (1999) Cooking rate, pH and final endpoint temperature effects on color and cook loss of a lean ground beef model system. Meat Sci. 52, 443- 151.
  64. Tornberg, E. (1996) Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness. Meat Sci. 43, 175-191.
  65. Usha, R. and Ramasami, T. (2000) Effect of pH on dimensional stability of rat tail tendon collagen fiber. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 75, 1577-1584.<1577::AID-APP3>3.0.CO;2-O
  66. Van den Dool, H. and Kratz, P. D. (1963) A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 1, 463- 471.
  67. Warner, R. D., Kauffman, R. G., and Greaser, M. L. (1997) Muscle protein changes post mortem in relation to pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 45, 339-352.
  68. Raes, K., Balcaen, A., Dirinck, P., De Winne, A., Claeys, E., Demeyer, D., and De Smet, S. (2003) Meat quality, fatty acid composition and flavour analysis in Belgian retail beef. Meat Sci. 65, 1237-1246.
  69. Stetzer, A. J., Cadwallader, K., Singh, T. K., Mckeith, F .K., Brewer, M. S. (2008) Effect of enhancement and ageing on flavor and volatile compounds in various beef muscles. Meat Sci. 79, 13-19.
  70. Bowers, J. A., Craig, J. A., Kropf, D. H., and Tucker, T. J. (1987) Flavor, color, and other characteristics of beef longissimus muscle heated to seven internal temperatures between 55 and $85{^{\circ}C}$. J. Food Sci. 52, 533-536.
  71. George-Evins, C. D. (1999) The effects of quality grade, postmortem aging, blade tenderization, and endpoint cooking temperature on Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking characteristics, and sensory panel evaluation of longissimus, gluteus medius, and semimembranosus muscles. MS thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
  72. Martens, H., Stabursvik, E., and Martens, M. (1982) Texture and color changes in meat during cooking relating to thermal denaturation of muscle proteins. J. Texture Stud. 13, 291- 300.
  73. Prado, I. N., Oliveira, A. N., Rotta, P. P., Perotto, D. Prado, R. M., Silva, R. R., Souza, N. E., and Moletta, J .L. (2009) Chemical and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus Muscle of Crossbred Bulls Finished in Feedlot. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 1054-1059.
  74. Rotta, P. P., Pardo, I. N. D, Prado, R. M. D., Moletta, J. L., Silva, R. R., and Perotto, D. (2009) Carcass Characteristics and Chemical Composition of the Longissimus Muscle of Nellore, Caracu and Holstein-friesian Bulls Finished in a Feedlot. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 598-604.
  75. Mottram, D. S. (1985) The effects of cooking conditions on the formation of volatile heterocyclic compounds in pork. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36, 377-382.
  76. Purchas, R. W., Rutherfurd, S. M., Pearce, P. D., Vather, R., Wilkinson, B. H. P. (2004) Cooking temperature effects on the forms of iron and levels of several other compounds in beef semitendinosus muscle. Meat Sci. 68, 201-207.

Cited by

  1. Influence of particular breed on meat quality parameters, sensory characteristics, and volatile components vol.22, pp.3, 2013,
  2. Effect of muscle type and vacuum chiller ageing period on the chemical compositions, meat quality, sensory attributes and volatile compounds of Korean native cattle beef vol.85, pp.2, 2014,
  3. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature vol.36, pp.3, 2016,
  4. Effect of marbling and chilled ageing on meat-quality traits, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of beef longissimus dorsi muscle vol.57, pp.5, 2017,
  5. Mechanical texture profile of Hanwoo muscles as a function of heating temperatures vol.60, pp.1, 2018,