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Contributions of Heating and Forcing to the High-Latitude Lower Thermosphere: Dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

  • Kwak, Young-Sil (Solar and Space Weather Research Group, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • Richmond, Arthur (High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research) ;
  • Ahn, Byung-Ho (Department of Earth Science, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Cho, Kyung-Suk (Solar and Space Weather Research Group, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute)
  • Received : 2010.07.28
  • Accepted : 2010.08.26
  • Published : 2010.09.15

Abstract

To better understand the physical processes that maintain the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics, we have identified relative contributions of the momentum forcing and the heating to the high-latitude lower thermospheric winds depending on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and altitude. For this study, we performed a term analysis of the potential vorticity equation for the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the southern summertime for different IMF conditions, with the aid of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEGCM). Difference potential vorticity forcing and heating terms, obtained by subtracting values with zero IMF from those with non-zero IMF, are influenced by the IMF conditions. The difference forcing is more significant for strong IMF $B_y$ condition than for strong IMF $B_z$ condition. For negative or positive $B_y$ conditions, the difference forcings in the polar cap are larger by a factor of about 2 than those in the auroral region. The difference heating is the most significant for negative IMF $B_z$ condition, and the difference heatings in the auroral region are larger by a factor of about 1.5 than those in the polar cap region. The magnitudes of the difference forcing and heating decrease rapidly with descending altitudes. It is confirmed that the contribution of the forcing to the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics is stronger than the contribution of the heating to it. Especially, it is obvious that the contribution of the forcing to the dynamics is much larger in the polar cap region than in the auroral region and at higher altitude than at lower altitude. It is evident that when $B_z$ is negative condition the contribution of the forcing is the lowest and the contribution of the heating is the highest among the different IMF conditions.

Keywords

high-latitude lower thermosphere;Interplanetary magnetic field;forcing;heating

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