Seasonal Variations of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed with an Airglow All-sky Camera at Mt. Bohyun, Korea (36° N)

  • Kim, Yong-Ha (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Chang-Sup (Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Chung, Jong-Kyun (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Han (Korea Polar Research Institute) ;
  • Chun, Hye-Yeong (Department of Meteorology, Yonsei University)
  • Received : 2010.07.23
  • Accepted : 2010.08.13
  • Published : 2010.09.15


We have carried out all-sky imaging of OH Meinel, $O_2$ atmospheric and OI 557.7 nm airglow layers in the period from July of 2001 through September of 2005 at Mt. Bohyun, Korea ($36.2^{\circ}$ N, $128.9^{\circ}$ E, Alt = 1,124 m). We analyzed the images observed during a total of 153 clear moonless nights and found 97 events of band-type waves. The characteristics of the observed waves (wavelengths, periods, and phase speeds) are consistent with internal gravity waves. The wave occurrence shows an approximately semi-annual variation, with maxima near solstices and minima near equinoxes, which is consistent with other studies of airglow wave observations, but not with those of mesospheric radar/lidar observations. The observed waves tended to propagate westward during fall and winter, and eastward during spring and summer. Our ray tracing study of the observed waves shows that majority of the observed waves seemed to originate from mesospheric altitudes. The preferential directions and the apparent source altitudes can be explained if the observed waves are secondary waves generated from primary waves that have been selected by the filtering process and break up at the mesospheric altitudes.


gravity wave;airglow;mesosphere;all-sky observation


  1. Baker, D. J. & Stair, A. T. Jr. 1988, PhyS, 37, 611, doi: 10.1088/0031-8949/37/4/021
  2. Cho, Y. 2006, PhD Thesis, York University
  3. Chun, H. Y. & Kim, Y. H. 2007, in International Symposium on Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere (Kyoto, Japan), p.48
  4. Chung, J. K. 2005, PhD Thesis, Chungnam National University
  5. Chung, J. K., Kim, Y. H., & Won, Y. I. 2003, AdSpR, 32, 825, doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00414-9
  6. Clemesha, B., Yang, G., Tokumoto, A., Bastista, P., & Simonich, D. 2006, in 36th COSPAR Scientific Conference (Beijing, China: Committee on Space Research), p.172
  7. Ejiri, M. K., Shiokawa, K., Ogawa, T., Igarashi, K., Nakamura, T., Maekawa, R., Tsuda, T., & Kubota, M. 2001, JGRD, 106, 22793, doi: 10.1029/2001JD900225
  8. Flemming, E. L., Chandra, S., Barnett, J. J., & Corney, M. 1990, AdSpR, 10, 11
  9. Fritts, D. C. & Alexander, M. J. 2003, RvGeo, 41, 1003, doi: 10.1029/2001RG000106
  10. Garcia, F. L. 1999, PhD Thesis, Cornell University
  11. Gavrilov, N. M., Riggins, D. M., & Fritts, D. C. 2003, JGR, 108, 4655, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003131
  12. Gavrilov, N. M., Shiokawa, K., & Ogawa, T. 2002, JGR, 107, 4755, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001469
  13. Hagan, M. E. & Forbes, J. M. 2002, JGR, 107, 4754, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001236
  14. Hecht, J. H., Walterscheid, R. L., & Ross, M. N. 1994, JGRA, 99, 11449, doi: 10.1029/94JA00584
  15. Heins, C. O. 1960, CaJPh, 38, 1441
  16. Holton, J. R. & Alexander, M. J. 1999, TellB, 51, 45, doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.00005.x
  17. Isler, J. R., Taylor, M. J., & Fritts, D. C. 1997, JGRD, 102, 26301, doi: 10.1029/97JD01783
  18. Lindzen, R. S. 1981, JGRC, 86, 9707, doi: 10.1029/JC086iC10p 09707
  19. Reisin, E. R. & Scheer, J. 2004, JASTP, 66, 655, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.01.017
  20. Smith, S. M., Mendillo, M., Baumgardner, J., & Clark, R. R. 2000, JGRA, 105, 27119, doi: 10.1029/1999JA000343
  21. Snively, J. B. & Pasko, V. P. 2003, GeoRL, 30, 2254, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018436
  22. Swinbank, R. & O'Neill, A. 1994, GeoRL, 21, 2099, doi: 10.1029/94GL01743
  23. Taylor, M. J., Fritts, D. C., & Isler, J. R. 1995, GeoRL, 22, 2837, doi: 10.1029/95GL02945
  24. Taylor, M. J. & Hapgood, M. A. 1990, P&SS, 38, 1421, doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(90)90117-9
  25. Taylor, M. J., Hapgood, M. A., & Rothwell, P. 1987, P&SS, 35, 413, doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(87)90098-5
  26. Taylor, M. J., Ryan, E. H., Tuan, T. F., & Edwards, R. 1993, JGR, 98, 6047, doi: 10.1029/92JA02604
  27. Taylor, M. J., Seo, S. H., Nakamura, T., Tsuda, T., Fukunish, H., & Takahashi, Y. 1998, GeoRL, 25, 1797, doi: 10.1029/98GL00847
  28. Thornsen, D. & Franke, S. J. 1998, JGR, 103, 3767, doi: 10.1029/97JD03548
  29. Wrasse, C. M., Nakamura, T., Tsuda, T., Takahashi, H., Medeiros, A. F., Taylor, M. J., Gobbi, D., Salatun, A., Suratno, Achmad, E., & Admiranto, A. G. 2006, JASTP, 68, 163, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2005.10.012
  30. Wu, Q. & Killeen, T. L. 1996, GeoRL, 23, 2211, doi: 10.1029/96GL 02168
  31. Yang, G., Clemesha, B., Batista, P., & Simonich, D. 2006, JGRD, 111, 211107, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006900
  32. Zhou, X., Holton, J. R., & Mullendore, G. L. 2002, JGRD, 107, 4058, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001204

Cited by

  1. Seasonal variation of wave activities near the mesopause region observed at King Sejong Station (62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica vol.105-106, 2013,
  2. Statistical Comparison of Gravity Wave Characteristics Obtained from Airglow All-Sky Observation at Mt. Bohyun, Korea and Shigaraki, Japan vol.32, pp.4, 2015,
  3. Ground-based Observations for the Upper Atmosphere at King Sejong Station, Antarctica vol.31, pp.2, 2014,
  4. Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau region vol.121, pp.9, 2016,
  5. Large- and small-scale periodicities in the mesosphere as obtained from variations in O<sub>2</sub> and OH nightglow emissions vol.35, pp.2, 2017,
  6. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region vol.122, pp.4, 2017,
  7. Statistical analysis of mesospheric gravity waves over King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.2°S, 58.8°W) vol.155, 2017,
  8. Mesospheric gravity wave characteristics and identification of their sources around spring equinox over Indian low latitudes vol.9, pp.1, 2016,
  9. A Climatological Study of Short-Period Gravity Waves and Ripples at Davis Station, Antarctica (68°S, 78°E), During the (Austral Winter February-October) Period 1999-2013 vol.122, pp.21, 2017,
  10. First OH Airglow Observation of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over European Russia Region pp.21699380, 2018,
  11. Seasonal characteristics of small- and medium-scale gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over the Brazilian equatorial region vol.36, pp.3, 2018,