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Significance of $p27^{kip1}$ as potential biomarker for intracellular oxidative status

  • Quintos, Lesley ;
  • Lee, In-Ae ;
  • Kim, Hyo-Jung ;
  • Lim, Ji-Sun ;
  • Park, Ji-A ;
  • Sung, Mi-Kyung ;
  • Seo, Young-Rok ;
  • Kim, Jong-Sang
  • Received : 2010.04.09
  • Accepted : 2010.08.30
  • Published : 2010.10.31

Abstract

Our previous proteomic study demonstrated that oxidative stress and antioxidant delphinidin regulated the cellular level of $p27^{kip1}$ (referred to as p27) as well as some heat shock proteins in human colon cancer HT 29 cells. Current study was conducted to validate and confirm the regulation of these proteins using both in vitro and in vivo systems. The level of p27 was decreased by hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner in human colon carcinoma HCT 116 (p53-positive) cells while it was increased upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide in HT 29 (p53-negative) cells. However, high concentration of hydrogen peroxide (100 ${\mu}M)$ downregulated p27 in both cell lines, but delphindin, one of antioxidative anthocyanins, enhanced the level of p27 suppressed by 100 ${\mu}M$ hydrogen peroxide. ICR mice were injected with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, delphinidin and both. Western blot analysis for the mouse large intestinal tissue showed that the expression of p27 was upregulated by 25 mg/kg BW hydrogen peroxide. To investigate the association of p27 regulation with hypoxia-inducible factor 1-beta (HIF-$1{\beta}$), the level of p27 was analyzed in wild-type mouse hepatoma hepa1c1c7 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (arnt, HIF-$1{\beta}$)-defective mutant BPRc1 cells in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide and delphinidin. While the level of p27 was responsive to hydrogen peroxide and delphinidin, it remained unchanged in BPRc1, suggesting that the regulation of p27 requires functional HIF-$1{\beta}$. We also found that hydrogen peroxide and delphinidin affected PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway which is one of upstream regulators of HIFs. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant delphinidin seem to regulate intracellular level of p27 through regulating HIF-1 level which is, in turn, governed by its upstream regulators comprising of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The results should also encourage further study for the potential of p27 as a biomarker for intracellular oxidative or antioxidant status.

Keywords

$p27^{kip1}$;biomarker;antioxidant;oxidative status;delphinidin

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : NRF