DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Factors Relative to the Brain Nerve Growth in Girls

유산소운동이 여자 아동의 뇌세포 생성 관련인자에 미치는 영향

  • Pyun, Mi-Young (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Cho, Han-Sam (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Jeon, Jae-Young (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Jong-Won (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Lee, Kyung-Hee (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Lim, Chun-Kyu (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Un (Department of of Physical Education, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Jun (Department of Physical Education, Kyungnam University) ;
  • Kwak, Yi-Sub (Department of Physical Education, Dong-Eui University) ;
  • Ko, Ki-Jun (Department of Sport for All, Daegu Mirae College)
  • 편미영 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 조한샘 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 전재영 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 김종원 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 이경희 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 임춘규 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 김태운 (부산대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 김현준 (경남대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 곽이섭 (동의대학교 체육교육과) ;
  • 고기준 (대구미래대학 스포츠학과)
  • Received : 2010.05.08
  • Accepted : 2010.06.23
  • Published : 2010.06.30

Abstract

Exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogeneration, neuroadaptivity, and neuroprotection. Aerobic exercise has been reported to change brain nerve growth factors (growth hormone, insulin like factor-1, estrogen and serotonin). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of aerobic exercise for 12 weeks on brain nerve growth factors in girls. Fourteen female participants in elementary school grades 1 through 3 were randomly allocated to the exercise group (EG, n=6) and control group (CG, n=8). The EG participated in 60 minutes of modified ballet exercise as aerobic training three days a week for 12 weeks. Based on comparison between groups by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, aerobic exercise program participants experienced decreased weight (p<0.01), BMI (p<0.01), fat mass (p<0.001), fat percent (p<0.001) and increased LBM (lean body mass) percent (p<0.001). In addition, we detected that aerobic exercise decreased the level of serotonin (p<0.05) and increased the level of GH (p<0.05) and IGF-1 (p<0.05). These findings suggest that aerobic exercise programs can be an efficient intervention to change body composition, alleviate central fatigue, improve brain function, and induce brain cell proliferation in girls.

References

  1. ACSM. 2000. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 6th ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Arsenijevic, Y. and S. Weiss. 1998. Insulin-like growth factor-I is a differentiation factor for postmitotic CNS stem cell-derived neuronal precursors: distinct actions from those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J. Neurosci. 18, 2118-2128.
  3. Avery, R. A., J. S. Franowicz, C. Studholme, C. H. van Dyck, and A. F. Arnsten. 2000. The alpha-2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, increases regional cerebral blood flow in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. Neuropsychopharmacology 23, 240-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X(00)00111-1
  4. Azmitia, E. C. and P. M. Whitaker-Azmitia. 1991. Awakening the sleeping giant: anatomy and plasticity of the brain serotonergic system. J. Clin. Psychiatry. 52, 4-16.
  5. Back, E. J. and M. G. Lee. 2007. Effects of an 8-week combined training of walking and rope skipping on body composition, physical fitness, blood Lipid profiles, and growth hormone in elementary students. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 46, 461-472.
  6. Bailey, S. P., J. M. Davis, and E. N. Ahlborn. 1993. Serotonergic agonists and antagonists affect endurance performance in the rat. Int. J. Sports Med. 14, 330-333. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021187
  7. Berchtold, N. C., J. P. Kesslak, C. J. Pike, P. A. Adlard, and C. W. Cotman. 2001. Estrogen and exercise interact to regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. Eu.r J. Neurosci. 14, 1992-2002. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01825.x
  8. Blomstrand, E. and B. Saltin. 2001. BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 281, 365-374.
  9. Blumenthal, J. A., C. F. Emery, D. J. Madden, S. Schniebolk, M. Walsh-Riddle, L. K. George, D. C. McKee, M. B. Higginbotham, F. R. Cobb, and R. E. Coleman. 1991. Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women. J. Gerontol. 46, 352-361. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/46.6.P352
  10. Carro, E., A. Nunez, S. Busiguina, and I. Torres-Aleman. 2000. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates effects of exercise on the brain. J. Neurosci. 20, 2926-2933.
  11. Carro, E., A. Nunez, S. Busiguina, and I. Torres-Aleman. 2001. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates the protective effects of physical exercise against brain insults of different etiology and anatomy. J. Neurosci. 21, 5678-5684.
  12. Carter, C. S., M. M. Ramsey, and W. E. Sonntagm. 2002. A critical analysis of the role of growth hormone and IGF-1 in aging and lifespan. Trends Genet 18, 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9525(02)02696-3
  13. Dalsky, G. P. 1990. Effect of exercise on bone: permissive influence of estrogen and calcium. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 22, 281-285.
  14. Dills, D. G., C. Allen, M. Palta, D. J. Zaccaro, R. Klein, and D. D'Alessio. 1995. Insulin-like growth factor-I is related to glycemic control in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, 2139-2143. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.80.7.2139
  15. Dishman, R. K. 1997. Exercise, Brain and behavior. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29, 37-38.
  16. Eriksson, P. S., E. Perfilieva, T. Bjork-Eriksson, A. M. Alborn, C. Nordborg, D. A. Peterson, and F. H. Gage. 1998. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nat. Med. 4, 1313-1317. https://doi.org/10.1038/3305
  17. Fordyce, D. E. and J. M. Wehner. 1993. Physical activity enhances spatial learning performance with an associated alteration in hippocampal protein kinase C activity in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Brain Res. 619, 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(93)91602-O
  18. Garcia-Segura, L. M., I. Azcoitia, and L. L. DonCarlos. 2001. Neuroprotection by estradiol. Prog. Neurobiol. 63, 29-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0082(00)00025-3
  19. Gertner, J. M. 1993. Effects of growth hormone on body fat in adults. Horm. Res. 40, 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1159/000183761
  20. Gould, E., A. J. Reeves, M. Fallah, P. Tanapat, C. G. Gross, and E. Fuchs. 1999. Hippocampal neurogenesis in adult Old World primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96, 5263-5267. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.9.5263
  21. Gould, E., A. J. Reeves, M. S. Graziano, and C. G. Gross. 1999. Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Sci. 286, 548-552. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5439.548
  22. Han, S. C. 2005. The Change of Plasma Cortisol, White Blood Corpuscle to Exercise Intensity. K. Sport Res. 16, 421-428.
  23. Harvey, S., I. Lavelin, and M. Pines. 2002. Growth hormone (GH) action in the brain: neural expression of a GH-response gene. J. Mol. Neurosci. 18, 89-95. https://doi.org/10.1385/JMN:18:1-2:89
  24. Heils, A., A. Teufel, S. Petri, G. Stober, P. Riederer, D. Bengel, and K. P. Lesch. 1996. Allelic variation of human serotonin transporter gene expression. J. Neurochem. 66, 2621-2624. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66062621.x
  25. Hengemihle, J. M., O. Abugo, J. Rifkind, E. Spangler, D. Danon, and D. K. Ingram. 1996. Chronic treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin increases hematocrit and improves water maze performance in mice. Physiol. Behav. 59, 153-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(95)02046-2
  26. Hill, R. D., M. Storandt, and M. Malley. 1993. The impact of long-term exercise training on psychological function in older adults. J. Gerontol. 48, 12-17. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/48.1.P12
  27. Holmes, A., D. L. Murphy, and J. N. Crawley. 2002. Reduced aggression in mice lacking the serotonin transporter. Psychopharmacology 161, 160-167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-002-1024-3
  28. Holzenberger, M,, J. Dupont, B. Ducos, P. Leneuve, A. Geloen, P. C. Even, P. Cervera, and Y. Le Bouc. 2003. IGF-1 receptor regulates lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in mice. Nature 421, 182-187. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01298
  29. Hur, S. and J. H. Jang. 2009. The Effects of After-School New Sports Exercise Program on Body Composition and Blood Components in Obese Elementary Boys. . Journal of physical growth and motor development 17, 73-80.
  30. Jang, J. H., and S. Hur. 2008. Comparison of obesity indices, plasma growth hormone and insulin-Like growth factor-1 according to exercise type in obese high school girls. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 47, 371-381.
  31. Kim, H. S. 2004. Effects of Dance on the Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Pubertal Girls. Journal of Physical Growth and Motor Development 12, 169-177.
  32. Klintsova, A. Y. and W. T. Greenough. 1999. Synaptic plasticity in cortical systems. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 9, 203-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(99)80028-2
  33. Kubitz, K. A. and A. A. Mott. 1996. EEG power spectral densities during and after cycle ergometer exercise. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 67, 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1996.10607929
  34. Kubitz, K. A. and K. Pothakos. 1997. Does aerobic exercise decrease brain activation? J. Sport and Exercise Psychol. 19, 291-301.
  35. Lanfranco, F., L. Gianotti, R. Giordano, M. Pellegrino, M. Maccario, and E. Arvat. 2003. Ageing, growth hormone and physical performance. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 26, 861-872. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03345237
  36. Lee, K. H., T. U. Kim, T. G. Park, H. J. Kim, C. H. Park, and M. K. Choi. 2008. Effects of Jumping Rope and Swiss Boll Exercise to Child GH, IGF-1, CT. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies 33, 1065-1074.
  37. Markowska, A. L., M. Mooney, and W. E. Sonntag. 1998. Insulin-like growth factor-1 ameliorates age-related behavioral deficits. Neuroscience 87, 559-569. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00143-2
  38. McLenachan, S., M. G. Lum, M. J. Waters, and A. M. Turnley. 2009. Growth hormone promotes proliferation of adult neurosphere cultures. Growth Horm. IGF Res. 19, 212-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2008.09.003
  39. Meeusen, R., J. Roeykens, L. Magnus, H. Keizer, and K. De Meirleir. 1997. Endurance performance in humans: the effect of a dopamine precursor or a specific serotonin (5-HT2A/2C) antagonist. Int. J. Sports Med. 18, 571-577. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972683
  40. Neeper, S. A., F. Gomez-Pinilla, J. Choi, and C. W. Cotman. 1996. Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain. Brain Res. 726, 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(96)00273-9
  41. Nibuya, M., S. Morinobu, and R. S. Duman. 1995. Regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA in rat brain by chronic electroconvulsive seizure and antidepressant drug treatments. J. Neurosci. 15, 7539-7547.
  42. Nicklas, B. J., A. J. Ryan, M. M. Treuth, S. M. Harman, M. R. Blackman, B. F. Hurley, and M. A. Rogers. 1995. Testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-I responses to acute and chronic resistive exercise in men aged 55-70 years. Int. J. Sports Med. 16, 445-450. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-973035
  43. Park, I. R. 2004. The Effects of Complex exercise program on Body composition, Growth hormone and IGF-1 of obese girls in middle school. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 43, 419-427.
  44. Reinhardt, R. R. and C. A. Bondy. 1994. Insulin-like growth factors cross the blood-brain barrier. Endocrinol. 135, 1753-1761. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.135.5.1753
  45. Roelen, C. A., W. R. de Vries, H. P. Koppeschaar, C. Vervoorn, J. H. Thijssen, and M. A. Blankenstein. 1997. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and high affinity growth hormone-binding protein levels increase after two weeks of strenuous physical training. Int. J. Sports Med. 18, 238-241. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972626
  46. Russo-Neustadt, A., T. Ha, R. Ramirez, and J. P. Kesslak. 2001. Physical activity-antidepressant treatment combination: impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and behavior in an animal model. Behav Brain Res. 120, 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(00)00364-8
  47. Scheepens, A., T. A. Moderscheim, and P. D. Gluckman. 2005. The role of growth hormone in neural development. Horm. Res. 3, 66-72.
  48. Schwarz, A. J., J. A. Brasel, R. L. Hintz, S. Mohan, and D. M. Cooper. 1996. Acute effect of brief low- and high-intensity exercise on circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, II, and IGF-binding protein-3 and its proteolysis in young healthy men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81, 3492-3497. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.81.10.3492
  49. Shim, J. H., and T. S. Park. 2002. Pilot study of relation between physical activity experience in infancy and developmental tendency of fundamental motor element in childhood. Journal of physical growth and motor development 10, 91-102.
  50. Singh M., E. M. Meyer, and J. W. Simpkins. 1995. The effect of ovariectomy and estradiol replacement on brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in cortical and hippocampal brain regions of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Endocrinol. 136, 2320-2324. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.136.5.2320
  51. Struder, H. K. and H. Weicker. 2001. Physiology and pathophysiology of the serotonergic system and its implications on mental and physical performance. Part I. Int. J. Sports Med. 22, 467-481. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-17605
  52. Swain, R. A., A. B. Harris, E. C. Wiener, M. V. Dutka, H. D. Morris, B. E. Theien, S. Konda, K. Engberg, P. C. Lauterbur, and W. T. Greenough. 2003. Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. J. Neurosci. 117, 1037-1046. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4
  53. Trejo, J. L., E. Carro, and I. Torres-Aleman. 2001. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. J. Neurosci. 21, 1628-1634.
  54. Underwood, L. E. and P. Backeljauw. 1993. Therapy with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I in children with insensitivity to growth hormone and in catabolic conditions. J. Intern. Med. 234, 571-577. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1993.tb01015.x
  55. Vissing, J., M. Andersen, and N. H. Diemer. 1996. Exercise-induced changes in local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat. J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab. 16, 729-736.
  56. Wise P. M., D. B. Dubal, M. E. Wilson, S. W. Rau, and Y. Liu. 2001. Estrogens: trophic and protective factors in the adult brain. Front. Neuroendoc. 22, 33-66. https://doi.org/10.1006/frne.2000.0207
  57. Yeo, N. H., K. S. Oh, Y. R. Cha, and S. H. Kang. 2008. Effect of Yoga Exercise Program on Catecholamine and Growth Hormone in Pre and Postmenopausal Middle Aged Women. Korean Journal of Sport Science 19, 31-40.