- Volume 12 Issue 2
The field measurements on the shotcrete lining are usually performed during the tunnel construction. However, the credibility of the measurements is not certain because of the non-stress related strains occurring in the shotcrete, the uncertainty of the deformation modulus of the shotcrete, and the intrinsic difficulties involved in the strain measurements in the shotcrete. The problem related to the field measurements on the shotcrete is investigated using the review of the previous studies and the field measurement performed for this study. A method for the correction of stress measurements at the shotcrete lining, considering the non-stress related strains, is suggested using the literature review and the actual measurements obtained from the non-stress shotcretes. The deformation modulus used for the calculation of the stress acting on the shotcrete is also suggested.
Grant : IT 및 신소재를 활용한 급속 안정화 터널시공기술개발
Supported by : 한국건설교통기술평가원
- 김성열, 윤지선 (2009), "터널막장안정 평가기법 및 막장볼트의 보강효과에 관한 수치해석적 연구", 터널기술, 한국토널공학회 논문집, 제11권, 제1호, pp. 11-22.
- 김학준, 박찬 (2008), "터널 진동현식 변형률 게이지의 신뢰성 시험 연구", 지질공학, 대한지질공학회 논문집, 제18권, 제2호, pp. 153-158.
- 박동순 (2001), "그라우팅 보강에 의한 터널 라이닝 하중 연구", 경희대학교, 토목공학화, 석사학위논문, pp. 88.
- 박연준, 유광호, 최영태, 김재용 (2004), "과지압 하에 있는 대규모 지하공동의 지보 시스템에 관한 연구", 터널과 지하공간, 한국암반공학회지, 제14권, 제2호, pp. 154-16.
- 에이스인스트루먼트 (2009), "에이스인스트루먼트 인터넷 홈페이지 제품 카다로그", www.aceinstrument.com/datasheet/028k.pdf.
- 유광호, 이민호, 박연준 (2007), "터널의 정량적 안정성 평가를 위한 숏크리트 모델링 방법 비교 검증에 관한 연구", 터널기술, 한국터널공학회 논문집, 제9권, 제2호, pp. 99-107.
- 이상준, 문현구 (2000), "시간의존성을 고려한 터널지반과 숏크리트의 상호반응거동에 관한 연구", 한국자원공학회지, 제37권, 제5호, pp. 350-361.
- 장수호, 최순욱, 최명식, 배규진 (2009), "실대형실험에 의한 조기재령 숏크리트 라이닝의 거동 평가", 2009년도 대한토목학회 정기학술대회 논문집, pp. 1019-1022.
- 하태욱, 김대영, 신영환, 양형식 (2008), "이차원 수치해석에 의한 강지보 성능을 고려한 숏크리트 라이닝의 부재력 평가 방법", 터널기술, 한국터널공학회 논문집, 제10권, 제3호, pp. 269-282.
- 한국수자원공사 (1989), "충주댐 계측자료를 이용한 거동분석(2차): 간극수압, 양압력, 변형 및 응력을 중심으로", 한국수자원공사 보고서.
- 한국터널공학회 (2007), "건설교통부 제정 터널설계기준", 씨아이알, pp. 138.
- 한국터널공학회 (2009), "건설교통부 제정 터널설계기준", 씨아이알, pp. 135.
- 홍건호, 신영수, 정일영, (1996), "콘크리트 강도 및 강성 발현평가에 대한 기초적 연구", 대한건축학회논문집, 제12권, 제7호, pp. 229-236.
- ABNT (1980), "Projeto e execucao de obras de concreto armado. NBR-6118", Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas.
- ACI (1971), "ACI Standard building code requirement for reinforced concrete". ACI 318-63, American Concrete Institute, pp. 143.
- ACI (1992), "Building code requirements for reinforced concrete (ACI 318-89) and commentary -ACI 318R-89", American Concrete Institute, pp. 347.
- ASA (2009). "www.shotcrete.org", Homepage of the American Shotcrete Association.
- ASCE (1995), "Standard practice for shotcrete", Technical Engineering and Design Guides as adapted from the US Army Corps of Engineers, No. 11, American Society of Civil Engineers Press, pp. 66.
- Barrett, S. V. L. and McCreath, D. R. (1995), "Shotcrete support design in blocky ground: Towards a deterministic approach", Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/0886-7798(94)00067-U
- Bernard, E. S. (2008), "Early-age load resistance of fibre reinforced shotcrete linings", Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 23, pp. 451-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2007.08.002
- Blanck, J. A. (1974), "Shotcrete durability and strength - A practical viewpoint", Use of Shotcrete for Underground Strength Support, ASCE and ACI SP-45, pp. 320-329.
- Bortz, S. A., Aleshin, E., Wade, T. B. and Chugh, Y. P. (1973), "Evaluation of present shotcrete technology for improved coal mine ground control", IIT Research Institute, Bu. Mines Report OFR-54-73, pp. 219.
- Brameshuber, W. and Kottas, R. (1987), "Ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Fruhfestigkeitsentwicklung von Spritzbeton", Beton und Stahlbetonbau, No. 10, pp. 270-273.
- Brierley, G. S. (1975), "The performance during construction of the liner for a large, shallow underground opening in rock", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, pp. 318.
- CEB-FIP (1978), "Model code for concrete structures", Comite Euro-international du Beton, Paris.
- Clayton, C.R. I., van der Berg, J. P., Heymann, G., Bica, A. V. D. and Hope, V. S. (2002), "The performance of pressure cells for sprayed concrete tunnel linings", Geotechnique, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 245-255.
- Corps of Engineers (1974), "Shotcrete for multipurpose tunnel, New Melones Lake, Stanislaus River, California", Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Sacramento District, Sacramento, California, pp. 87.
- Dunnicliff, J. (1988), "Geotechnical instrumentation for monitoring field performance", John Wiley & Sons, pp. 577.
- Fernandez-Delgado, G., Mahar, J., and Cording, E. (1975), "Shotcrete, Structural testing of thin liners", Report for Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D. C., pp. 219.
- Gebler, S. H. (1992), "Durability of dry-mix shotcrete containing regulated-set cement", Shotcrete, American Concrete Institute, Compilation 18, pp. 44-46.
- Gebler, S. H. and Schutz, R. (1992), "Is 0.85fc' valid for shotcrete", Shotcrete, American Concrete Institute, Compilation 18, pp. 3-5.
- Geokon (2009), "Products catalogue", www.geokon.com/products/datasheets/4200.pdf.
- Golser, J., Schubert, P. and Rabensteiner, K. (1989), "A new concept for evaluation of loading in shotcrete linings", Proceedings, International Congress on Progress and Innovation in Tunnelling, Edited by K. Y. Lo, Toronto, Sept., pp. 79-85.
- John, M. and Mattie, B. (2003), "Factors of shotcrete lining design", Tunnels and Tunnelling International, Vol. 35, No. 10, pp. 42-44.
- Jones, B. D. (2007), "Stresses in sprayed concrete tunnel junctions", Thesis for the Degree of Engineering Doctorate, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, UK.
- Kusterle, W. and Lukas, W. (1990), "High-grade shotcrete for the single pennanent shotcrete lining method", Shotcrete for Underground Support, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 27-51.
- Kuwajima, F. M. (1991), "Behavior of shotcrete in shallow tunnels", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, pp. 511.
- Litvin, A. and Shideler, J. J. (1966), "Laboratory study of shotcrete", ACI SP-14, Shotcreting, pp. 165-184.
- Mahar, J. W., Gau, F. L. and Cording, E. J. (1972), "Observations during construction of rock tunnels for the Washington, D. C. Subway", Proceedings, North American Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, Lane and Garfield, ed., American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.
- Mahar, J. W., Parker, H. W. and Wuellner, W. W. (1975), "Shotcrete practice in underground construction", Final Report Prepared for Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D. C., pp. 503.
- Morgan, D. R. (1992), "High early strength blended-cement wet-mix shotcrete", Shotcrete, American Concrete Institute, Compilation 18, pp. 23-27.
- Negro, A. Jr. (1988), "Design of shallow tunnels in soft ground", Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp. 1480.
- Parker, H. W., Fernandez, G. and Lorig, L. J. (1975), "Field-oriented investigation of conventional and experimental shotcrete", Report for Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration.
- Parker, H. W., Fernandez, G. and Lorig, L. J. (1976), "A practical new approach to shotcrete rebound losses", ACI SP-54, Shotcrete for ground support, Eaton, Maryland, Oct., pp. 149-187.
- Pauw, A. (1960), "Static modulus of elasticity of concrete as affected by density", Title No. 57-32, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 57, pp. 679-687.
- Pihlajavaara, S. E. (1982), "Estimation of drying of concrete at different relative humidities and temperatures of ambient air with special discussion about fundamental features of drying and shrinkage", In Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures Edited by Bazant, Z. P. & Wittmann, F. H., John Wiley & Sons, pp. 87-108.
- Selig, E. T. (1964), "A review of stress and strain measurement in soil", Proceedings of the Symposium on SoilStructure Interaction, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, pp. 172-186.
- Ward, W. H. (1978), "Ground supports for tunnels in weak rocks". Geotechnique, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 133-171.
- Ward, W. H. and Hills, D. L. (1976), "Sprayed concrete: tunnel support requirements and the dry mix process", ACI, Publication SP-54: Shotcrete for ground support, Eaton, Maryland, Oct., pp. 475-532.
- Ward, W. H. and Pender, M. J. (1981), "Tunnelling in soft ground - General Report", Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Vol. 4, pp. 261-275.
- Yang, C. Y., Xu, M. X. and Chen, W. F. (2007), "Reliability analysis of shotcrete lining during tunnel construction", Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, Vol. 133, No. 12, pp. 975-981. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2007)133:12(975)