Seasonal Characteristics of PM2.5 Water Content at Seoul and Gosan, Korea

서울과 고산의 PM2.5 수분함량 계절 특성

  • Lee, Hyung-Min (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Kim, Yong-Pyo (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University)
  • 이형민 (이화여자대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 김용표 (이화여자대학교 환경공학과)
  • Published : 2010.02.28


Water content of $PM_{2.5}$ (particles in the atmosphere with a diameter of less than or equal to a nominal $2.5{\mu}m$) was estimated by using a gas/aerosol equilibrium model, SCAPE2, for the particles collected at Seoul and Gosan, Korea. From measured and analyzed characteristics of the particles, the largest difference between Seoul and Gosan is the proportions of total ammonia (t-$NH_3$=gas phase $NH_3$+particle phase ${NH_4}^+$), total nitric acid (t-$HNO_3$=gas phase $HNO_3$+particle phase ${NO_3}^-$) and sulfuric acid ($H_2SO_4$). Even though both sites have sufficient t-$NH_3$ to neutralize acidic species such as $H_2SO_4$, t-$HNO_3$, and t-HCl (total chloric acid=gas phase HCl+particle phase $Cl^-$), equivalent fraction of t-$NH_3$ and t-$HNO_3$ are higher at Seoul and $H_2SO_4$ is higher at Gosan. Based on the modeling result, it is identified that the $PM_{2.5}$ at Seoul is more hygroscopic than Gosan if the meteorological conditions are the same. To reduce water content of $PM_{2.5}$, and thus, mass concentration, control measures for ammonia and nitrate reduction are needed for Seoul, and inter-governmental cooperation is required for Gosan.


  1. Ansari, A.S. and S.N. Pandis (1998) Response of inorganic PM to precursor concentrations, Environmental Science & Technology, 32, 2706-2714.
  2. Bromley, L.A. (1973) Thermodynamic properties of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions, AIChE Journal, 19,313-320.
  3. Kang, C.M. (2003) Characteristics of the fine particles and source apportionments using the CMB model in Seoul area, Ph. D, Konkuk University.
  4. Kean, A.J., R.A. Harley, D. Littlejohn, and G.R. Kendall (2000) On-road measurement of ammonia and other motor vehicle exhaust emissions, Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 3535-3539.
  5. Kim, J.-Y. (2006) Seasonal variation of $PM_{2.5}$ water content in Seoul, Master's degree, Ewha Womans University.
  6. Kim, N.K., Y.P. Kim, C.H. Kang, and K.C. Moon (2003) Characteristics of ion concentrations of PM2.5 measured at Gosan: measurement data between 1998 and 2002, Korean J. of Atmos. Environ., 19(3), 333-343. (in Korean with English abstract)
  7. Kim, Y.P., J.H. Seinfeld, and P. Saxena (1993a) Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium I. thermodynamic model, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 157-181.
  8. Kim, Y.P., J.H. Seinfeld, and P. Saxena (1993b) Atmospheric gas-aerosol equilibrium II. analysis of common approximations and activity coefficient calculation methods, Aerosol Science and Technology, 19, 182- 198.
  9. Kusik, C.L. and H.P. Meissner (1978) Electrolyte activity coefficients in inorganic processing.
  10. Lee, H.-M. and Y.P. Kim (2007) Analysis on the effects of traffic control program on the air quality in Seoul, Korean J. of Atmos. Environ., 23(4), 498-506. (in Korean with English abstract)
  11. Lee, J.H., Y.P. Kim, K.-C. Moon, H.-K. Kim, and C.B. Lee (2001) Fine particle measurements at two background sites in Korea between 1996 and 1997, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 635-643.
  12. Malm, W.C. and D.E. Day (2001) Estimates of aerosol species scattering characteristics as a function of relative humidity, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2845-2860.
  13. Meng, Z., D. Dabdub, and J.H. Seinfeld (1998) Size-resolved and chemically resolved model of atmospheric aerosol dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 3419-3435.
  14. NIER (2007) Study on chemical properties and physical behaivor of long-range transported particluate matters (II). National Institute of Environmental Research.
  15. Park, M.H., Y.P. Kim, C.-H. Kang, and S.-G. Shim (2004) Aerosol composition change between 1992 and 2002 at Gosan, Korea, Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 109.
  16. Pitzer, K.S. (1986) Theoretical considerations of solubility with emphasis on mixed aqueous electrolytes, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 58, 1599-1610.
  17. Pitzer, K.S. and J.J. Kim (1974) Thermodynamics of electrolytes. IV. Activity and osmotic coefficients for mixed electrolytes, Journal of the American Chemical Society 76, 5701-5707.
  18. Sa, J.H., E.C. Jeon, and J.H. Jeong (2006) Development of mass transfer models for ammonia flux estimation from sewage treatment plants, Korean J. of Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 701-711. (in Korean with English abstract)
  19. Seinfeld, J.H. and S.N. Pandis (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics, Wiely-interscience.
  20. Stokes, R.H. and R.A. Robinson (1966) Interactions in aqueous nonelectrolyte solutions. I. Solute-solvent quilibria, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 70, 2126-2130.
  21. Sutton, M.A., U. Dragosits, Y.S. Tang, and D. Fowler (2000) Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 855-869.
  22. Wexler, A.S. and J.H. Seinfeld (1991) Second-generation inorganic aerosol model, Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics, 25, 2731-2748.
  23. Yoon, S.-C. and J. Kim (2006) Influences of relative humidity on aerosol optical properties and aerosol radiative forcing during ACE-Asia, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 4328-4338.
  24. Zdanovskii, A.B. (1948) New methods for calculationg solubilities of electrolytes in multicomponent systems, Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii, 22, 1475-1485.