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Improvement of Atmospheric PM2.5 Levels and Related Premature Deaths in Seoul, Korea

서울시 대기 중 PM2.5 농도 개선과 조기사망 감소 효과

  • Bae, Hyun-Joo (National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation) ;
  • Shin, JI-Young (Korea Environment Institute) ;
  • Park, Chan-Koo (Research Institute of Public Health and Environment) ;
  • Jung, Kweon (Research Institute of Public Health and Environment) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Yol (Research Institute of Public Health and Environment) ;
  • Kim, Min-Young (Research Institute of Public Health and Environment) ;
  • Park, Jeong-Im (Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Soon Chun Hyang University)
  • 배현주 (식품의약품안전평가원) ;
  • 신지영 (한국환경정책평가연구원) ;
  • 박찬구 (서울시 보건환경연구원) ;
  • 정권 (서울시 보건환경연구원) ;
  • 이상열 (서울시 보건환경연구원) ;
  • 김민영 (서울시 보건환경연구원) ;
  • 박정임 (순천향대학교 환경보건학과)
  • Published : 2010.02.28

Abstract

In recent studies, $PM_{2.5}$ has been reported to be more harmful to human health than $PM_{10}$ because it penetrates more deeply into the lung. We estimated $PM_{2.5}$ related health benefits in Seoul from implementing the World Health Organization (WHO)'s guidelines (annual average $10{\mu}g/m^3$, 24-hour average $25{\mu}g/m^3$) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Ambient Air Quality Standard (annual average $15{\mu}g/m^3$, 24-hour average $35{\mu}g/m^3$). U.S. EPA's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program was utilized for the analysis. It was predicted that the attainment of the WHO annual guideline and U.S. EPA's annual standard, relative to the concentration in 2006, would result in reduction of 2,333~2,895 premature deaths and 1,703~2,121 premature deaths, respectively. If the WHO and EPA's daily standard for $PM_{2.5}$ are attained, 1,211~1,394 and 1,012~1,165 premature deaths could be avoided, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the estimates were robust regardless of air quality simulation methods for attaining the $PM_{2.5}$ goals. This study provides a quantitative approach to evaluate health risks from air pollution as well as to assess the potential health benefits of improving atmospheric $PM_{2.5}$ concentration. Even considering the intrinsic limitations and uncertainties of the analysis, it is an important information to rationalize the enforcement of $PM_{2.5}$ management policies and measures in Seoul, Korea.

Keywords

$PM_{2.5}$;Premature mortality;Health benefits;BenMAP

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