DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Efficacy of Sanitizing Treatments for Feline Calicivirus as a Norovirus Surrogate Attached to Food and Food Contact Surfaces

  • Lee, Sung-Young ;
  • Kim, Kwang-Yup
  • Received : 2010.01.08
  • Accepted : 2010.06.20
  • Published : 2010.06.30

Abstract

Norovirus (NV) is becoming a major cause of foodborne illness in many countries. At present, very little is known about the survival of NV in the environment or the disinfection procedures needed to remove NV from contaminated surfaces. Feline calicivirus (FCV, $1{\times}10^{6.75}\;TCID_{50}/mL$) was used as a surrogate model for NV to investigate the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments for the viruses attached to food and food contact surfaces. Ammonium chloride (2%), organic acids (3000 ppm), and ethanol (70%) were most effective, providing $4\;log_{10}$ (99.99%) reductions in FCV titers on food or food contact surfaces. The disinfection efficacies of most agents on ceramic and glass surfaces were greater than stainless steel. The results from this study can be applied in the food industry to reduce NV-associated foodborne illnesses.

Keywords

norovirus;feline calicivirus;inactivation;$TCID_{50}$;disinfectants

References

  1. Koopmans M, von Bonsdorff CH, Vinjé J, Medici D,Monroe S. 2002. Foodborne viruses. FEMS Microbiol Rev26: 187-205. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2002.tb00610.x
  2. Richards GP, Cliver DO. 2001. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. In Foodborne viruses. Downes FP, Ito K, eds. 4th ed. Ch. 44, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA. p 447-461.
  3. Cliver DO. 1995. Detection and control of foodborne viruses. Trends Food Sci Tech 6: 353-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(00)89190-6
  4. Svensson L. 2000. Diagnosis of foodborne viral infections in patients. Int J Food Microbiol 59: 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00281-6
  5. Koopmans M, Durzer E. 2004. Foodborne viruses: An emerging problem. Int J Food Microbiol 90: 23-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00169-7
  6. Seymour IJ, Appleton H. 2001. Foodborne viruses and fresh produce. J Appl Microbiol 91: 759-773. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01427.x
  7. Taku A, Gulati BR, Allwood PB, Palazzi K, Hedberg CW,Goyal SM. 2002. Concentration and detection of caliciviruses from food contact surfaces. J Food Prot 65: 999-1004. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-65.6.999
  8. Widdowson MA, Sulka A, Bulens SN, Totaro J, WoronR, Mead PS, Bresee JS, Monroe SS, Glass RI. 2005.Norovirus and foodborne disease, United States, 1991-2000. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 95-102. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1101.040426
  9. Korea Food and Drug Administration. Present condition of foodborne viruses. Available from: http://fm.kfda.go.kr.Accessed 4 August 2008.
  10. Rabenau HF, Stürmer M, Buxbaum S, Walczok A, PreiserW, Doerr HW. 2003. Laboratory diagnosis of norovirus: Which method is the best? Intervirology 46: 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1159/000072433
  11. Biadawid S, Malika N, Adeqbunrinb O, Sattarb SA, FarberJM. 2003. A feline kidney cell line-based plaque assay for feline calicivirus, a surrogate for Norwalk virus. J Virol Methods 107: 163-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(02)00214-8
  12. Gulati BR, Allwood PB, Hedberg CW, Goyal SM. 2001.Efficacy of commonly used disinfectants for the inactivation of calicivirus on strawberry, lettuce, and a foodcontact surface. J Food Prot 64: 1430-1434. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.9.1430
  13. Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, Groot AD, Twisk F,Koopmans M. 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 41: 4538-4543.
  14. LaBarre DD, Lowy RJ. 2001. Improvements in methods for calculating virus titer estimates from $TCID_{50}$ and plaque assays. J Virol Methods 96: 107-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(01)00316-0
  15. D'Souza DH, Sair A, Williams K, Papafragkou E, JeanJ, Moore C, Jaykus L. 2006. Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental surfaces and their transfer to food. Int J Food Microbiol 108: 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.10.024
  16. Mattison K, Karthikeyan K, Abebe M, Malik N, Sattar SA,Farber JM, Bidawid S. 2007. Survival of calicivirus in foods and on surfaces: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate for norovirus. J Food Prot 70: 500-503. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.2.500
  17. Doultree JC, Druce JD, Birch CJ, Bowden DS, MarshallJA. 1999. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J Hosp Infect 41: 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(99)90037-3
  18. Fleet GH, Heiskanen P, Reid I, Buckle KA. 2000. Foodborne viral illness-status in Australia. Int J Food Microbiol59: 127-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00249-X
  19. Jimenez L, Chiang M. 2006. Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: A surrogate for norovirus. Am J Infect Control34: 269-273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2005.11.009
  20. Juven BJ, Pierson MD. 1996. Antibacterial effects of hydrogen peroxide and methods for its detection and sanitization.J Food Prot 59: 1233-1241. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-59.11.1233
  21. Yashpal SM, Sunil M, Sagar MG. 2006. Comparative efficacy of ethanol and isopropanol against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Am J Infect Control 34: 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2005.05.012
  22. Gehrke C, Steinmann J, Goroncy-Bermes P. 2004. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like viruses), by different types of alcohol in vitro and in vivo. J Hosp Infect 56: 49-55.
  23. Tree JA, Adams MR, Lees DN. 2005. Disinfection of feline calicivirus (a surrogate for Norovirus) in wastewaters.J Appl Microbial 98: 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02442.x
  24. Cliver DO. 1997. Virus transmission via food. World Health Stat Q 50: 90-101.
  25. Wang QH, Costantini V, Saif LJ. 2007. Porcine enteric caliciviruses: genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine 25:5453-5466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.12.032
  26. Allwood PB, Malik YS, Hedberg CW, Goyal SM. 2004.Effect of temperature and sanitizers on the survival of feline calicivirus, Escherichia coli, and F-specific coliphage MS2 on leafy salad vegetables. J Food Prot 67: 1451-1456. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-67.7.1451
  27. Reed LJ, Muench H. 1983. A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoint. Am J Hyg 27: 493-497.
  28. Boxman IL, Dijkman R, te Loeke NA, Hagele G, Tilburg JJ, Vennema H, Koopmans M. 2009. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships. J Food Prot 72: 111-119. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-72.1.111
  29. Malik YS, Goyal SM. 2005. Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Int J Food Microbiol 109:160-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.033
  30. Bidawid S, Malik N, Adegbunrin O, Sattar SA, Farber JM. 2004. Norovirus cross-contamination during food handling and interruption of virus transfer by hand antisepsis: experiments with feline calicivirus as a surrogate.J Food Prot 67: 103-109. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-67.1.103
  31. Kusumaningrum HD, Riboldi G, Hazeleger WC, BeumerRR. 2003. Survival of foodborne pathogens on stainless steel surfaces and cross-contamination to foods. Int J Food Microbiol 85: 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00540-8
  32. Rutala WA, Barbee SL, Aguiar NC, Sobsey MD, WeberDJ. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of home disinfectants and natural products against potential human pathogens. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 21: 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1086/501694
  33. Valot S, Edert D, Faou LA. 2000. A simple method for the in vitro study of the virucidal activity of disinfectants.J Virol Methods 86: 21-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-0934(99)00170-6
  34. Thurston-Enriquez JA, Haas CN, Jacangelo J, Riley K,Gerba CP. 2003. Inactivation of feline calicivirus and adenovirus type 40 by UV radiation. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 577-582. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.1.577-582.2003
  35. Butot S, Putallaz T, Sanchez G. 2008. Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs. Int J Food Microbiol 126: 30-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.04.033
  36. Karapinar M, Gonul SA. 1992. Effects of sodium bicarbonate, vinegar, acetic and citric acids on growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica. Int J Food Microbiol 16:343-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(92)90036-3
  37. Steinmann J. 2004. Surrogate viruses for testing virucidal efficacy of chemical disinfectants. J Hosp Infect 56: 549-554.
  38. Ukuku DO. 2004. Effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on microbial quality and appearance of whole and freshcut melons contaminated with Salmonella spp. Int J Food Microbiol 95: 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.01.021
  39. Poschetto LF, Ike A, Papp T, Mohn U, Bohm R, Marschang RE. 2007. Comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under fieldlike conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 5494-5500. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00482-07
  40. Poschetto LF, Ike A, Papp T, Mohn U, Böhm R, Marschang RE. 2007. Comparison of the sensitivities of noroviruses and feline calicivirus to chemical disinfection under fieldlike conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 5494-5500. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00482-07
  41. Cannon JL, Papafragkou E, Park GW, Osborne J, JaykusLA, Vinje J. 2006. Surrogates for the study of norovirus stability and inactivation in the environment: A comparison of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus. J Food Prot 69: 2761-2765. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-69.11.2761

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Chungbuk National University