DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Dietary Energy Level on Growth Efficiency and Carcass Quality Traits of Finishing Pigs

  • Ha, Duck-Min (Regional Animal Industry Center, Jinju National University) ;
  • Kim, Gap-Don (Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Han, Jeong-Cheol (Regional Animal Industry Center, Jinju National University) ;
  • Jeong, Jin-Yeun (Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Park, Man-Jong (Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Park, Byung-Chul (CJ Feed Research Institute) ;
  • Joo, Seon-Tea (Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, C.-Young (Regional Animal Industry Center, Jinju National University)
  • Received : 2010.03.09
  • Accepted : 2010.05.31
  • Published : 2010.06.30

Abstract

A total of 96 non-lean-type (Yorkshire $\times$ Landrace) $\times$ Duroc gilts and barrows weighing approximately 80 kg were randomly allocated to 24 pens under a 2 (sex) $\times$ 3 [diet; 3.4, 3.2, and 3.0 Mcal DE/kg {'high'-, 'medium'-, and 'low'-energy diets (HE, ME, and LE), respectively}] factorial arrangement of treatments. All animals were slaughtered approximately at 115 kg, after which carcass quality traits and grades and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the loin related to meat quality were analyzed. The ADG and gain:feed were not affected by the sex or dietary treatment, whereas ADFI was greater in the ME vs HE group. Backfat thickness was greater in barrows vs gilts and also in ME and HE vs LE only in barrows. Enumerated carcass marbling and quality grade, which were highly correlated (r=0.56; P<0.01), were greater in barrows vs gilts. Physicochemical characteristics including the color, pH, drip loss and contents of moisture, protein, and fat of fresh loin, as well as sensory characteristics of fresh and cooked loin, were not affected by the sex or dietary treatment, except for shear force for cooked loin which was greater (P<0.05) in LE and ME vs HE. In conclusion, it is thought that ME is comparable to HE in terms of the effect on growth and carcass quality of finishing pigs, but that the relative effect of LE vs ME needs to be further studied.

Keywords

Finishing pig;Diet;Growth;Carcass;Meat Quality

References

  1. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C., USA.
  2. ARC. 1981. The Nutrient Requirements of Pigs. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Farnham Royal, UK.
  3. Chang, W. K. and Chung, S. K. 1985. Studies for improving swine feeding programs. Effects of L-lysine supplementation to grower feed. Annual Research Reports of National Livestock Research Institute, Republic of Korea, pp. 286-294.
  4. CIE. 1978. Recommendations on uniform color spaces-color difference equations, psychometric color terms. Supplement no. 2 to CIE Publication No. 15 (E-1.3.1) 1971/(TC-1-3). Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Paris.
  5. Cisneros, F., Ellis, M., McKeith, F. K., McCaw, J. and Fernando, R. L. 1996. Influence of slaughter weight on growth and carcass characteristics, commercial cutting and curing yields, and meat quality of barrows and gilts from two genotypes. J. Anim. Sci. 74:925-933. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.745925x
  6. Coffey, M. T., Seerley, R. W., Funderburke, D. W. and McCampbell, H. C. 1982. Effect of heat increment and level of dietary energy and environmental temperature on the performance of growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 54:95-105. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.54195x
  7. Chung, C. Y., Chung, I. B., Kwon, D. J., Chung, S. K., Yoon, H. J. and Kim, K. S. 1981. Experiments on swine production. Effects of plane of nutrition and market weight on pork quality. Annual Research Reports of National Livestock Research Institute, Republic of Korea, pp. 436-476.
  8. Hale, O. M., Newton, G. L. and Haydon, K. D. 1986. Effect of diet and exercise on performance, carcass traits and plasma components of grow-finishing barrows. J. Anim. Sci. 62:665-671. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.623665x
  9. Han, I. K. 2000. Swine Nutrition and Feeds. Seoul National University.
  10. Huff-Lonergan E., Lonergan, S. M. and Beerman, D. H. 2003. Animal Growth and Meat Quality. In: Biology of Growth of Domestic Animals (Ed: C. G.. Scanes). Iowa State Press, A Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, IA, USA, pp. 220-232.
  11. Jin, S. K., Kim, I. S., Hur, S. J., Hah, K. H. and Kim, B. W. 2004. Effects of feeding period on carcass and objective meat quality in crossbred longissimus muscle. J. Anim. Sci. Technol (Kor.) 46:811-820. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2004.46.5.811
  12. Joo, S. T., Kauffman, R. G., Kim, B. C. and Park, G. B. 1999. The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle. Meat Sci. 52:291-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00005-4
  13. JRC. 1988. Japanese Feeding Standard for Swine. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council, Japan.
  14. Kim, Y. S., Kim, S. W., Weaver, M. A. and Lee, C. Y. 2005. Increasing the pig market weight: world trends, expected consequences and practical considerations. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:590-600. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.590
  15. Leach, L. M., Ellis, M., Sutton, D. S., McKeith, F. K. and Wilson, E. R. 1996. The growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of halothane carrier and negative pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:934-943. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.745934x
  16. Lee, C. Y., Lee, H. P., Jeong, J. H., Baik, K. H., Jin, S. K., Lee, J. H. and Sohn, S. H. 2002. Effects of restricted feeding, low-energy diet, and implantation of trenbolone acetate plus estradiol on growth, carcass traits, and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGFbinding protein-3 in finishing barrows. J. Anim. Sci. 80:84-93. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80184x
  17. Lee, C. Y., Lee, H.-P., Lee, J. H. and Park, M. J. 2000. Effects of a low-energy diet on growth and carcass quality of finishing barrows. J. Agric. Tech. Res. Inst. (Chinju Nat. Univ.) 13:199-205.
  18. Lee, C. Y., Kim, M. H., Ha, D. M., Park, J. W., Oh, G. Y., Lee, J. R., Ha, Y. J. and Park, B. C. 2007. Effects of the energy level of the finisher diet on growth efficiency and carcass traits of 'high'-market weight pigs. J Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 49:471-480. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2007.49.4.471
  19. Lee, C. Y., Kwon, O. C., Ha, D. M., Shin, H. W., Lee, J. R., Ha, Y. J., Lee, J. H., Ha, S. H., Kim, W. K., Kim, K. W. and Kim, D. H. 2006. Growth efficiency, carcass quality characteristics and profitability of finishing pigs slaughtered at130 vs. 110 kg. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 48:493-502. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.493
  20. MAF. 2005. “Definitions and indications of the primal cuts of animal carcasses” (in Korean). Notification No. 2005-50 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of Korea.
  21. MAF. 2007. “Grading Standards for Livestock Products” (in Korean). Notification No. 2007-40 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Republic of Korea.
  22. McFarland, D. C. 2003. Nutrition and growth. In: Biology of Growth of Domestic Animals (Ed.: C. G.. Scanes). Iowa State Press, A Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, IA, USA, pp. 249-262.
  23. Moon, S. S., Yang, H. S., Park, G. B. and Joo, S. T. 2006. The relationship of physiological maturity and marbling judged according to Korean grading system to meat quality traits of Hanwoo beef females. Meat Sci. 74:516-521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.027
  24. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  25. NSIF. 1997. Guidelines for Uniform Swine Improvement Programs. On-farm Programs. National Swine Improvement Federation, Raleigh, NC, USA.
  26. Park, M. J., Ha, D. M., Shin, H. W., Lee, S. H., Kim, W. K., Ha, S. H., Yang, H. S., Jeong, J. Y., Joo, S. T. and Lee, C. Y. 2007. Growth efficiency, carcass quality characteristics and profitability of 'high'-market weight pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 49:459-47. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2007.49.4.459
  27. Park, M. J., Jeong, J. Y., Ha, D. M., Han, J. C., Sim, T. G., Park, B. C., Park, G. B., Joo, S. T. and Lee, C. Y. 2009. Effects of dietary energy level and slaughter weight on growth performance and grades and quality traits of the carcass in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Techonl. (Kor.) 51:143-154. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2009.51.2.143
  28. RDA. 2007. Korean Feeding Standard for Swine. National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
  29. SCA. 1987. Feeding Standard for Australian Livestock. Pigs. Standing Committee on Agriculture. Pig Subcommittee. CSIRO. Australia.
  30. Warner, R. D., Kauffman, R. G. and Greaser, M. L. 1997. Muscle protein changes post mortem in relation to pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 45:339-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(96)00116-7
  31. Yang, H. S., Moon, S. S., Jeong, J. Y., Choi, S. G., Joo, S. T. and Park, G. B. 2006. Effect of sodium bicarbonate injection in pre-rigor porcine M. Longissimus lumborum on pork quality. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:898-904. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.898

Cited by

  1. Feasibility of Increasing the Slaughter Weight of Finishing Pigs vol.53, pp.3, 2011, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.211
  2. Effects of the Low-Crude Protein and Lysine (Low CP/lys) Diet and a Yeast Culture Supplemented to the Low CP/lys Diet on Growth and Carcass Characteristics in Growing-finishing Pigs vol.54, pp.6, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2012.54.6.427
  3. Effects of Plane of Nutrition on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Traits in Finishing Pigs vol.54, pp.6, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2012.54.6.449
  4. Effects of Increasing Market Weight of Finishing Pigs on Backfat Thickness, Incidence of the 'Caky-fatty' Belly, Carcass Grade, and Carcass Quality Traits vol.55, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2013.55.3.195
  5. Effects of the Decreased Carcass Grade of Finishing Pigs due to Increasing Market Weight on Carcass Quality Traits and Physicochemical and Sensory Quality Characteristics of the Loin and Belly vol.55, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2013.55.3.203
  6. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs vol.34, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2014.34.4.516
  7. Assessment of growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs raised on the low plane of nutrition vol.57, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0070-4
  8. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits vol.45, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000300002
  9. Inclusion of dietary multi-species probiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality traits, faecal microbiota and diarrhoea score in growing–finishing pigs pp.1828-051X, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1340097