The Effects of Replacing Inorganic with a Lower Level of Organically Complexed Minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) in Broiler Diets on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense Systems

  • Aksu, Devrim Saripinar (University of Mustafa Kemal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology) ;
  • Aksu, Taylan (University of Mustafa Kemal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders) ;
  • Ozsoy, Bulent (University of Mustafa Kemal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders) ;
  • Baytok, Erol (University of Erciyes, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders)
  • Received : 2009.10.19
  • Accepted : 2010.01.27
  • Published : 2010.08.01


In this study, the effects of replacing inorganic copper, zinc and manganese with different levels of organic complexes of the same trace minerals on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in broilers were investigated. Two-hundred Ross-308 one-day-old broiler chickens were placed on controlled diets until 42 d of age. The experimental animals were divided into four groups comprising three experimental groups and one control group, each consisting of 50 chickens. All groups were also divided into five subgroups each containing 10 broiler chicks. The mineral content of the control group diet was controlled using a standard inorganic mineral premix with supplement levels and sources of trace minerals typical of commercial broiler diets according to the National Research Council (NRC) (containing 8 mg Cu as $CuSO_4$, 40 mg Zn as $ZnSO_4$, and 60 mg Mn as MnO, per kg). In the experimental diets, mineral premix was also comprised of inorganic formulations, except for those of Cu, Zn and Mn. Organically-complexed Cu, Zn, and Mn were separately added to the basal diet at 1/3 (L1), 2/3 (L2) and 3/3 (L3) levels with respect to the NRC recommendation, as Bioplex $Cu^{TM}$, Bioplex $Zn^{TM}$, Bioplex $Mn^{TM}$. At the end of the trial, the plasma Zn level significantly increased when the plasma Cu level significantly decreased (p<0.05) in chickens fed at 2/3 and 3/3 levels of organically complexed minerals. The liver trace mineral concentrations were significantly higher in chickens fed inorganic trace minerals in comparison to those fed organically-complexed minerals. The plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level of experimental chickens was decreased in groups receiving levels of organic Cu, Zn and Mn in comparison to those fed inorganic forms (p<0.01). The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in all groups receiving the organic mineral supplements in comparison to those fed inorganic forms (p<0.01). No differences were observed on either the erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity or the plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) levels, and the liver MDA levels and liver CAT and SOD activities in any of the groups that received the organic supplements of Cu, Zn, and Mn. It was concluded that supplementation of lower levels of organically-complexed copper, zinc, and manganese instead of their inorganic forms in diets had no negative effects on the antioxidant defense system in broilers.


  1. Aebi, H. 1984. Catalase in vitro. Meth. Enzymol. 105:121-126.
  2. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Maryland.
  3. Aydemir, T., R. Ozturk, L. A. Bozkaya and L. Tarhan. 2000. Effects of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and trace elements Cu, Se on CuZn SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and LPO levels in chicken erythrocytes. Cell Biochem. Funct. 18:109-115.<109::AID-CBF861>3.0.CO;2-2
  4. Balevska, P. S., E.M. Russanov and T.A. Kassabova. 1981. Studies on lipid peroxidation in rat liver by copper deficiency. Biochem. J. 13:489-493.
  5. Bao, Y. M., M. Choct, P. A. Iji and K. Brueton. 2007. Effect of organically complexed copper, iron, manganese, and zinc on broiler performance, mineral excretion, and accumulation in Tissues. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 16:448-455.
  6. Bao, Y. M. and M. Choct. 2009. Trace mineral nutrition for broiler chickens and prospects of application of organically complexed trace minerals: a review. Anim. Prod. Sci. 49:269-282.
  7. Bendich, A. 1993. Physiological role of antioxidants in the immune system. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2789-2794.
  8. Bozkaya, L. A., R. Ozturk-Urek, T. Aydemir and L. Tarhan. 2001. Effects of Se, Cu and Se+ vitamin E deficiency on the activities of CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and LPO levels in chicken erythrocytes. Cell Biochem. Funct. 19:153-157.
  9. Bulbul, A., T. Bulbul, S. Kuçukersan, M. Sireli and A. Eryavuz. 2008. Effects of dietary supplementation of organic and inorganic Zn, Cu and Mn on oxidant/antioxidant balance in laying hens. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. 14:19-24.
  10. Chevar, S., T. Andial and K. Banke. 1992. Free radical reactions and cancer. Vopr. Med. Khim. 5:4-5.
  11. Chua, A. C. G., L. M. Stanell, L. D. Savingi and M. E. Morgan. 1996. Mechanisms of manganese transport in rabbit erythroid cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 493(1):99-112.
  12. Close, W. H. 1998. The role of trace mineral proteinates in pig nutrition. In: Biotechnology in the feed Industry (Ed. T. P. Lyson and K. A. Jaques). Proceedings os Alltech`s 14th Annual Symposium, Nottingham. pp. 469-484.
  13. Cohen, G., D. Dembiec and J. Marcus. 1970. Measurement of catalase activity in tissue extracts. Anal. Biochem. 34:30-38.
  14. Colombo, J. P. and R. Richterich. 1964. Zur bestimmung des caeruloplasmins im plasma. Schweiz. Medizin. Wochensch. 94:715-720.
  15. Das, D. 2002. Vitamins and coenzymes. Biochemistry.11 th edn. Kolkata, Academic Publishers. pp. 243-288.
  16. Forman, H. J. and I. Ridovich. 1973. On the stability of bovine superoxide dismutase: the effects of metals. J. Biol. Chem. 248:2645-2649.
  17. Haddad, A. S., V. Subbiah and A. E. Lichtin. 2008. Hypocupremia and bone marrow failure. Haematol. 93, e1-e5. DOI:10.3324/haematol.12121
  18. Harris, E. D. 1997. Copper. In: Handbook of nutritionally essential mineral elements (Ed. B. L. O'dell and R. A. Sundre). New York University of Missouri. pp. 231-260.
  19. Inal, F., B. Coskun, N. Gulsen and V. Kurtoglu. 2001. The effects of withdrawal of vitamin and trace mineral supplements from layer diets on egg yield and trace mineral composition. Br. Poult. Sci. 42:77-80.
  20. Jia-Perng, J. W., S. Chandra, H. Holly, S. V. Joan and B. G. Edith. 2001. Evidence for a novel role of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in zinc Metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 276:44798-44803.
  21. Lai, C., W. Huang, A. Askari, L. M. Klevay and T. H. Chiu. 1995. Expression of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in copper-deficient rat liver and heart. J. Nutr. Biochem. 6:256-262.
  22. Leeson, S. 2003. A new look at trace mineral nutrition of poultry: Can we reduce the environmental burden of poultry manure? In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries (Ed. T. P Lyson and K. A. Jaques). Nottingham University Pres, Nottingham. pp. 125-129.
  23. Milne, D. B. 1994. Assessment of copper nutritional status. Clin. Chem. 40:1479-1484.
  24. Nollet, L., J. D. Van Der Klis, M. Lensing and P. Spring. 2007. The effect of replacing inorganic with organic trace minerals in broiler diets on productive performance and mineral excretion. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 16:592-597.
  25. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of chickens. 9th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  26. Ohtsuka, A., H. Kojima, T. Ohtani and K. Hayashi. 1998. Vitamin E reduces glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscle. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitam. 44:779-786.
  27. Orzechhowski, O., P. Ostaszewski, A. Brodnicka, J. Wilczak, M. Jank, B. Balasinska, K. Grzelkowska, T. Ploszaj, J. Olczak and A. Mrowczynska. 2000. Excess of glucocorticoids impairs whole-body antioxidant status in young rats. Relation to the effect of dexamethasone in soleus muscle and spleen. Horm. Metab. Res. 32:174-180.
  28. Reiter, R. J., R. C. Carneiro and C. S. Oh. 1997. Melatonin in relation to cellular antioxidative defence mechanisms. Horm. Metab. Res. 29:363-372.
  29. Rowin, J. and S. L. Lewis. 2005. Copper deficiency myeloneutropathy and pancytopeniasecondary overuse of zinc supplementataion. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 76:750-751.
  30. Sahin, K., M. O. Smith, M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M. F. Gursu and O. Kucuk. 2005. Supplementation of zinc from organic or inorganic source improves performance and antioxidant status of heat-distressed quail. Poult. Sci. 84:882-887.
  31. SAS Institute Inc. 1994. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Release 6.08 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina
  32. Sies, H. 1991. Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application. Am. J. Med. 91:31-38.
  33. Sun, Y., L. W. Oberley and L. Ying. 1988. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin. Chem. 34:497-500.
  34. Yoshoiko, T., K. Kawada and T. Shimada. 1979. Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against active-oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135:372-376.
  35. Zhang, H. J., Y. D. Tian, Y. M. Gou and J. M. Yuan. 2008. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. Br. Poult. Sci. 49:213-221.

Cited by

  1. Influence of Various Levels of Organic Zinc on the Live Performance, Meat Quality Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Broiler Chickens vol.31, pp.2, 2011,
  2. Effects of organically-complexed minerals on meat quality in chickens vol.52, pp.5, 2011,
  3. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming vol.45, pp.6, 2013,
  4. Effect of the Inclusion of Organic Copper, Manganese, And Zinc in The Diet of Layers on Mineral Excretion, Egg Production, and Eggshell Quality vol.17, pp.spe, 2015,
  5. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb vol.28, pp.7, 2015,
  6. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer vol.172, pp.2, 2016,
  7. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex pp.1559-0720, 2017,
  8. Sources and Levels of Trace Elements Influence Some Blood Parameters in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves pp.1559-0720, 2018,
  9. Effects of replacing inorganic trace minerals with organic trace minerals on the production performance, blood profiles, and antioxidant status of broiler breeders pp.1525-3171, 2019,