Effects of Dietary Fe-soy Proteinate and MgO on Egg Production and Quality of Eggshell in Laying Hens

  • Seo, Y.M. (Animal Nutrition Research Group, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Shin, K.S. (Animal Nutrition Research Group, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Rhee, A.R. (Animal Nutrition Research Group, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Chi, Y.S. (Metalloenzyme Research Group and Department of Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Han, J. (Metalloenzyme Research Group and Department of Biotechnology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Paik, I.K. (Animal Nutrition Research Group, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • Received : 2010.03.03
  • Accepted : 2010.04.23
  • Published : 2010.08.01


This study investigated the effects of Fe-soy proteinate (Fe-SP) and magnesium oxide (MgO) dietary supplements on eggshell quality in laying hens. A total of 800 26-wk-old Hy-Line Brown hens were assigned to four dietary treatments: control (C), Fe-SP 100 (100 ppm Fe-soy proteinate), MgO (3 g MgO/kg diet), and Fe-SP 100+MgO. Each treatment had five replicates of 40 hens. The FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) spectra of Fe-soy proteinate were different from those of $FeSO_4$ and soy digest. There were no significant differences among treatments in hen-day egg production, hen-house egg production, broken and soft egg rate, feed intake, or feed conversion. The MgO and Fe-SP 100+MgO treatments showed significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weights than the control group. Eggshell strength and thickness were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the MgO supplemented groups. The lightness and yellowness of the eggshells decreased, and the redness increased significantly in the Fe-SP treated groups. There were no significant differences among treatments in leukocyte level, but hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were higher with Fe-SP treatments. In conclusion, supplementation with Fe-SP significantly affects eggshell color and hemoglobin concentration, whereas MgO supplementation increases eggshell strength and thickness. Egg weight and egg shell quality can be improved by supplementation of 100 ppm Fe in the form of Fe-SP and 3 g MgO/kg diet.


MgO;Fe-soy Proteinate;Eggshell Quality;Layer;Hemoglobin


  1. AOAC. 1990. Official method of analysis (15th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.
  2. Adams, A. W. 1976. Magnesium sulfate effects on three strains of egg type hens. Poult. Sci. 55:1808-1810.
  3. Ashmead, H. D. 1993. The role of amino acids chelates in animal nutrition. Noyes Publications. New Fersey, USA.
  4. Atteh, J. O. and S. Leeson. 1982. Influence of increasing dietary calcium and magnesium levels on performance, mineral metabolism, and egg mineral content of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 62:1261-1268.
  5. Chi, Y. S. and J. H. Han. 2008. Synthesis and characterization of metal-proteinates. Proceeding of the 4th Asian Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference (ASBIC-4). November. P50:100 (Abstr.).
  6. Dressel, E. I. B. and J. E. Falk. 1954. Studies on biosynthesis of blood pigments. 1. Haem synthesis in haemolysed erythrocytes of chicken blood. Biochem. J. 56:156-163.
  7. Eisen, E. J., B. B. Bohren and H. E. Mckean. 1962. The Haugh Units as a measure of egg albumen quality. Poult. Sci. 41:1461-1468.
  8. Fouad, M. T. 1976. The physiochemical role of chelated minerals in maintaining optical body biological functions. J. Appl. Nutr.28:5.
  9. Gaal, K. K., O. Safar, L. Gulyas and P. Stadler. 2004. Magnesium in animal nutrition. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 23(6):754S-757S.
  10. Han, J. H., Y. S. Chi, B. K. Shin, S. K. Kim and I. K. Paik. 2006. FT-IR and XRD analyses of commercial methionine-mineral chelates. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 49(1):8-10.
  11. Kennedy, G. Y. and H. G. Vevers. 1973. Eggshell pigmentation of the Araucano fowl. Comp. Biol. Phy. 44B:11-25.
  12. Lang, M. R. and J. W. Wells. 1987. A review of eggshell pigmentation. World's Poult. Sci. J. 43(3):238-246.
  13. McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards and J. F. D. Greenhalgh. 1971. "Animal Nutrition," 3rd ed. London: Oliver and Boyd, pp. 83-84.
  14. McNaugton, J. L., B. Day, B. C. Dilworth and B. D. Lott. 1974. Iron and copper availability from various sources. Poult. Sci. 53:1325-1330.
  15. Miller, D., J. H. Soares Jr., P. Bauersfeld Jr. and S. L. Cupett. 1972. Comparative selenium retention by chicks fed sodium selenite, selenomethionine, fish meal and fish soluble. Poult. Sci. 51:1669-1673.
  16. Naber, E. C. 1979. The effect of nutrition on the composition of eggs. Poult. Sci. 58:518-528.
  17. NRC. 1994. Nutrient requirement of poultry. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  18. Paik, I. K. 2001. Application of chelated minerals in animal production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(Special Issue):191-198.
  19. Paik, I. K., H. K. Lee and S. W. Park. 2009. Effects of organic iron supplementation on the performance and iron content in the egg yolk of laying hens. J. Poult. Sci. 46:198-202.
  20. Park, S. W., H. Namkung, H. J. Ahn and I. K. Paik. 2004. Production of iron enriched eggs of laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(12):1725-1728.
  21. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS system for window V 8.01. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  22. Solomon, S. E. 1997. Egg and eggshell quality. Lowa State University Press.
  23. Spears, J. W. 1992. The bioavailability of zinc, copper and manganese amino acid complexes and chelates. NFIA., Nutrition Institute.
  24. Stafford, J. E. H. and N. A. Edwards. 1972. Magnesium netabolism in the laying fowl. Br. Poult. Sci. 14:137-148.
  25. Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, NY.
  26. Zoubek, G. L., E. R. Peo Jr., B. D. Moser, T. Stahly and P. J. Cunningham. 1975. Effects of source on copper uptake by swine. J. Anim. Sci. 40:880-884.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper-soy Proteinate on the Performance of Laying Hens vol.38, pp.3, 2011,
  2. Effects of Increasing Supplementation of Magnesium in Diets on Productive Performance and Eggshell Quality of Aged Laying Hens vol.151, pp.1, 2013,
  3. A selection study for improving eggshell colour in two parent lines of laying hens and their hybrids vol.15, pp.3, 2016,
  4. Effect of Inclusion of Blood Meal in Diets on Eggshell Color of Brown-egg Laying Hens vol.16, pp.6, 2017,
  5. Gallinarum in experimentally infected layers vol.18, pp.3, 2017,
  6. Recent advances in avian egg science: A review vol.96, pp.10, 2017,
  7. Influence of dietary supplemental chromium and magnesium on performance and metabolic parameters of laying hens subjected to heat stress vol.46, pp.1, 2018,