Effect of Genotype and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Fattening Pigs in Central Vietnam

  • Pham, Khanh Tu (Department of Animal Science, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry) ;
  • Hoang, Nghia Duyet (Department of Animal Science, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry) ;
  • Le Duc, Ngoan (Department of Animal Science, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry) ;
  • Hendriks, W.H. (Animal Nutrition group, Department Animal Sciences, Wageningen University) ;
  • Van Der Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. (Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre) ;
  • Verstegen, M.W.A. (Animal Nutrition group, Department Animal Sciences, Wageningen University)
  • Received : 2009.10.18
  • Accepted : 2010.01.18
  • Published : 2010.08.01


This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), $F_1$ Large White${\times}$Mong Cai and $F_2$ crossbreds of (Landrace${\times}$Mong Cai)${\times}$Large White were used. At the start of the experiment, Mong Cai pigs weighed 12 kg at 11 weeks of age, $F_1$ pigs 12.1 kg at 8 weeks of age and $F_2$ pigs 12.2 kg at 8 weeks of age. Four diets differing in crude protein (CP) content (10.1, 13.1, 16.1 and 18.9% in DM) were formulated from rice bran, corn meal, cassava meal and fish meal. Calculated digestible energy content of the diets ranged from 13.5 to 13.8 MJ per kg DM. Pigs were housed individually in pens of $2.5\;m^2$ each and had ad libitum access to feed in a trough as well as water in bowls. The final weights after a growing period of 150 days were 66, 86 and 96 kg for MC, $F_1$ and $F_2$, respectively. Feed intake of MC pigs was highest at 13.1% CP while $F_1$ and $F_2$ had the highest feed intake at 16.1% CP. The results showed that for MC the maximum gain was obtained at levels between 13 to 16% CP. For the $F_1$ the maximum gain was at dietary protein levels of 16-17%. For $F_2$ the max gain was obtained at CP levels of 16 to 18%. Feed conversion was highest in MC pigs (~4.0) followed by $F_1$ (~3.3) and $F_2$ (~3.1), and within genotypes was lowest at the optimum CP level (p<0.05). Back fat thickness in MC (33.1 mm), $F_1$ (23.0 mm) and $F_2$ (20.5 mm) pigs was different and within genotypes was the lowest at intermediate CP levels. In conclusion, increasing the dietary crude protein contents in practical diets for pigs in Vietnam can increase production on small holder farms. Optimal performance for MC, $F_1$ and $F_2$ pigs is achieved at different dietary crude protein contents.


  1. Bikker, P. M., M. W. A. Verstegen, R. G. Campbell and B. Kemp. 1994. Digestible lysine requirement of gilts with high genetic potential for lean gain, in relation to the level of energy intake. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1744-1753.
  2. Bikker, P., M. W. A. Verstegen and G. R. Campbell. 1996. Performance and body composition of fattening gilts (45-85 kg) as effected by energy intake and nutrition in early life. I. Protein and lipid accretion in body component. J. Anim. Sci. 74:817-826.
  3. Burrin, D. G. 2001. Nutrient requirements and metabolism. In: Biology of the domestic pig (Ed. W. G. Pond and H. J. Mersmann). Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. pp. 309-389.
  4. Burrin, D. G, B. Stoll, J. B. van Goudoever and P. J. Reeds. 2001. Nutrient requirements for intestinal growth and metabolism in the developing pig. In: Digestive physiology of pigs (Ed. J. E. Lindberg and B. Ogle). Wallingford, U.K., CABI Publishing. pp. 75-88.
  5. Campbell, R. G., M. R Taverner and D. M. Curic. 1985. The influence of feeding level on the protein requirement of pigs between 20 and 45 kg. Anim. Prod. 40:489-496.
  6. Campbell, R. G. and M. R. Taverner. 1988. Genotype and sex effects on the relationship between energy intake and protein deposition in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 66:676-686.
  7. Chen, H. Y., A. J. Lewis, P. S. Miller and J. T. Yen. 1999. The effect of excess protein on growth performance and protein metabolism of finishing barrow and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3238-3247.
  8. Cromwell, G. L., T. S. Stahly and H. J. Monegue. 1990. Performance and carcass traits of finishing barrows and gilts fed high dietary protein levels. J. Anim. Sci. 68 (Suppl. 1):382 (Abstr.).
  9. Cromwell, G. L., T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, R. C. Evan, C. R. Hamilton, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, E. R. Miller, J. E. Pettigrew, L. F. Tribble and T. L. Veum. 1993. The dietary protein and(or) lysine requirement of barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1510-1519.
  10. Drucker, A. G., E. Bergeron, U. Lemke, L. T. Thuy and A. Valle Zárate. 2006. Identification and quantification of subsidies relevant to the production of local and imported pig breeds in Vietnam. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 38:305-322.
  11. Ferguson, N. S., R. M. Gous and G. C. Emmans. 1994. Preferred components for the construction of a new simulation model of growth, feed intake and nutrient requirements of growing pigs. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 24:10-17.
  12. De Greef, K. H., M. W. A Verstegen and B. Kemp. 1994. The effect of body weight and energy intake on the composition of deposited tissue in pigs. Anim. Prod. 58:263-270.
  13. Hansen, B. C. and A. J. Lewis. 1993. Effect of dietary protein concentration (corn-soybean meal ratio) on body weight nitrogen balance of growing boars, barrows and gilts: mathematical descriptions. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2110-2121.
  14. Henry, Y., Y. Colleaux and B. Seve. 1992. Effects of dietary level of lysine and of level and source of protein on feed intake, growth performance, and plasma amino acid pattern in the finishing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 70:88-195.
  15. Holmes, C. W., J. R. Carr and G. Pearson. 1980. Some aspects of the energy and nitrogen metabolism of boars, gilts and barrows given diets containing different concentrations of protein. Anim. Prod. 31:279-289.
  16. Huynh, T. T. T., A. J. A. Aarnink, W. J. J. Gerrits, M. J. H. Heetkamp, T. T. Canh, H. A. M. Spoolder, B. Kemp and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2005a. Thermal behavioral adaptation of growing pigs as affected by temperature and humidity. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 91:1-16.
  17. Huynh, T. T. T., A. J. A Aarnink, M. W. A Verstegen, W. J. J. Gerrits., M. J. W Heetkamp, B Kemp and T. T. Canh. 2005b. Effects of increasing temperatures on physiological changes in pigs at different relative humidity. J. Anim. Sci. 83:1385-1396.
  18. ISO. 1997. Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of nitrogen content and calculation of crude protein content Kjeldahl method. ISO5983. International organization for standardization.
  19. ISO. 1998 Animal feeding stuffs. Determination of moisture and other volatile matter content. ISO.6496. International organization for standardization.
  20. Just, A. 1982. The net energy value of crude (catabolized) protein for growth in pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 9:349-360.
  21. Kotarbinska, M. and J. Kielanowski. 1969. Energy balance studies with growing pigs by the comparative slaughter technique 4th symposium on energy metabolism. Warsaw EAAP publication 12:299-310.
  22. Le, D. N., O. Brian and J. E. Lindberg. 2001. Effect of replacing fish meal with ensiled shrimp by-product on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:82-87.
  23. Morales, J., M. D. Baucells, J. F. Perez, J. Mourot and J. Gasa 2003. Body fat content, composition and distribution in Landrace and Iberian finishing pig give ad libitum maize and a corn-sorghum- maize-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 77:215-224.
  24. Moughan, P. J., M. W. A. Verstegen and M. I. Visser-Reyneveld. 1995. Modelling growth in the pig. Wageningen Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  25. NIAH (National Institute for Animal Husbandry). 2001. Composition and nutritive value of animal feedstuffs of Vietnam. Agriculture Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  26. Nieto, R., L. Lara, M. A Garcia, M. A. Vílchez and J. F. Aguilera. 2003. Effects of dietary protein content and feed intake on carcass characteristics and organ weights of growing Iberian pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:47-56.
  27. Ngo, H. T., L. D. Ngoan and V. D. Giang. 2004. Effects of crude protein levels on apparent ileal and total tract digestibilities in Mong Cai growing pigs. J. Agric. Rural Develop. 5:601-602.
  28. NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  29. Pham, K. T., N. D. Hoang, L. D. Ngoan, W. H. Hendriks and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2010. Nutritional constraints and possibilities for pig production on smallholders farms in Central Vietnam. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:253-262.
  30. Quiniou, N., S. Dubois and J. Noblet. 2000. Voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior of group-housed growing pigs are affected by ambient temperature and body weight. Livest. Prod. Sci. 63:245-253.
  31. Renaudeau, D., N. Mandonnet, M. Tixier-Boichard, J. Noblet and J. P. Bidanel. 2004. Atte´nuer les effets de la chaleur sur les performances des porcs: la voie ge´ne´tique INRA Productions Animales 17:93-108.
  32. Sundrum, A., L. Butfering, M. Henning and K. H. Hoppenbrock. 2000. Effects of on-farm diets for organic pig production on performance and carcass quality. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1199-1205.
  33. Tyler, R. W., W. G. Luce, R. K. Johnson, C. V. Maxwell, R. L. Hint and L. E. Walter. 1983. The effect of level of crude protein on performance of growing boars. J. Anim. Sci. 57:364-372.
  34. Van An, L., T. T. T. Hong, O. Brian and J. E. Lindberg 2005. Utilization of ensiled sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) leaves as a protein supplement in diets for growing pigs. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 37:77-88.
  35. Wagner, G. R., A. J. Clark, V. W. Hays and V. C. Speer. 1963. Effect of protein-energy relationships on the performance and carcass quality of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 22:202-208.
  36. Warriss, P. D., S. C. Kestin and J. M. Robinson. 1983. A note on the influence of rearing environment on meat quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 9:271-279.