Effects of Trace Mineral Source and Growth Implants on Trace Mineral Status of Growing and Finishing Feedlot Steersa,b,c

  • Dorton, K.L. (Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids) ;
  • Wagner, J.J. (Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University) ;
  • Larson, C.K. (Zinpro Corporation) ;
  • Enns, R.M. (Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University) ;
  • Engle, T.E. (Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University)
  • Received : 2009.08.06
  • Accepted : 2009.11.06
  • Published : 2010.07.01


Three hundred and seventy-three steers (approximately 7 mo of age and $247{\pm}19.4\;kg$) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) source and growth implants on trace mineral status. Steers were blocked by ranch, post-weaning treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head/pen). Treatment consisted of: I) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), ii) inorganic trace minerals, and iii) organic trace minerals. Six pens of steers per treatment received a growth implant at the beginning of the experiment and were re-implanted during the finishing phase. The remaining steers received no growth implants. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet for 56 d then were gradually switched to a high concentrate finishing diet. Treatments during the finishing phase consisted of: i) control (no supplemental Zn); ii) inorganic Zn (30 mg of Zn/kg DM from $ZnSO_4$); and iii) organic Zn (iso-amounts of organic Zn). By the end of the growing and finishing phases, implanted steers had greater (p<0.01) plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers. During the growing phase, liver Cu concentrations (p<0.01) and plasma Zn concentrations (p<0.02) were greater in steers supplemented with TM compared to control steers. Steers supplemented with inorganic minerals had greater liver Cu concentrations than steers supplemented with organic minerals at the beginning (p<0.01) and end (p = 0.02) of the growing phase. During both the growing (p = 0.02) and finishing phases (p = 0.05), nonimplanted control steers had greater plasma Cu concentrations than non-implanted steers supplemented with TM, whereas, implanted control steers had similar plasma Cu concentrations than implanted steers supplemented with TM. Non-implanted steers that received inorganic TM had lower plasma Cu concentrations (p = 0.03) during the growing phase and ceruloplasmin activity (p<0.04) during the finishing phase than non-implanted steers that received organic TM, whereas, implanted steers supplemented with either organic or inorganic TM had similar plasma Cu concentrations.


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