Analysis of Image Visibility in Projection-type Integral Imaging System without Diffuser

  • Park, Soon-Gi (Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Song, Byoung-Sub (Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Min, Sung-Wook (Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University)
  • Received : 2010.01.06
  • Accepted : 2010.04.02
  • Published : 2010.06.25


We analyze image visibility of a projection-type integral imaging system without diffuser, in terms of the fill factor, which is determined by the relationship between the exit pupil of the projection system and the size and the focal length of the elemental lens. High fill factor is a requirement for good visibility. Moreover, for psychological reasons, for the same fill factor, better visibility is accomplished using a relatively small elemental lens. In this paper, we study image visibility through basic experiments and results.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  2. S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L71-L74 (2005).
  3. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, and B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Exp. 11, 1862-1875 (2003).
  4. J. Hong, J.-H. Park, S. Jung, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging by use of optical path control,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1790-1792 (2004).
  5. H. Choi, J.-H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5330-5336 (2004).
  6. Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging by use of multilayered display devices,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4334-4343 (2006).
  7. Y. Kim, H. Choi, J. Kim, S.-W. Cho, Y. Kim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 3766-3773 (2007).
  8. H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, and T. Dohi, “High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector,” Opt. Exp. 12, 1067-1076 (2004).
  9. J. S. Jang, Y. S. Oh, and B. Javidi, “Spatiotemporally multiplexed integral imaging projector for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display,” Opt. Exp. 12, 557-563 (2004).
  10. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional projection integral imaging using micro-convex-mirror arrays,” Opt. Exp. 12, 1077-1083 (2004).
  11. M. Okui, J. Arai, Y. Nojiri, and F. Okano, “Optical screen for direct projection of integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9132-9139 (2006).
  12. R. Martinez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martínez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Exp. 15, 16255-16260 (2007).
  13. I. Biederman, “Recognition-by-component theory: a theory of human image understanding,” Psychol. Rev. 94, 115-147 (1987).
  14. M. J. Tarr, P. Williams, W. G. Hayward, and I. Gauthier, “Three-dimensional object recognition is viewpoint dependent,” Nat. Neurosci. 1, 275-277 (1998).

Cited by

  1. Analysis of the Motion Picture Quality of Stereoscopic Three-dimensional Images vol.14, pp.4, 2010,
  2. Bi-sided integral imaging with 2D/3D convertibility using scattering polarizer vol.21, pp.25, 2013,
  3. Tiling integral floating display system with optimized viewing window vol.51, pp.22, 2012,
  4. Analysis of Condition for Integral Floating Display Inducing Proper Accommodation Responses vol.12, pp.11, 2016,
  5. Recent issues on integral imaging and its applications vol.15, pp.1, 2014,
  6. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional transparent screens based on lens-array holographic optical elements vol.22, pp.12, 2014,
  7. Analysis of color separation reduction through the gap control method in integral imaging vol.15, pp.2, 2014,
  8. Comparisons of Object Recognition Performance with 3D Photon Counting & Gray Scale Images vol.14, pp.4, 2010,
  9. Reflection-type Three-dimensional Screen using Retroreflector vol.18, pp.3, 2014,
  10. Elemental Image Generation Method with the Correction of Mismatch Error by Sub-pixel Sampling between Lens and Pixel in Integral Imaging vol.16, pp.1, 2012,
  11. Integral-floating Display with 360 Degree Horizontal Viewing Angle vol.16, pp.4, 2012,
  12. Viewing-zone control of integral imaging display using a directional projection and elemental image resizing method vol.52, pp.28, 2013,
  13. Measurement of accommodation response of human eye to integral floating display vol.54, pp.26, 2015,
  14. Projection-type integral imaging system using multiple elemental image layers vol.50, pp.7, 2011,
  15. Enhancement of depth-of-field in a direct projection-type integral imaging system by a negative lens array vol.20, pp.23, 2012,
  16. Depth-enhanced integral imaging system based on spatial filtering vol.16, pp.2, 2015,
  17. See-through integral imaging display using a resolution and fill factor-enhanced lens-array holographic optical element vol.22, pp.23, 2014,
  18. Extraction of Distance Information with Nonlinear Correlation of Photon-Counting Integral Imaging vol.20, pp.5, 2016,
  19. Simplification of integral imaging system by using a lenticular lens array vol.10, pp.6, 2014,
  20. Projection-Type Integral Imaging Using a Pico-projector vol.18, pp.6, 2014,
  21. Distance Extraction by Means of Photon-Counting Passive Sensing Combined with Integral Imaging vol.15, pp.4, 2011,
  22. Reflection-type integral imaging system using a diffuser holographic optical element vol.22, pp.24, 2014,
  23. Tiled integral floating display without occlusion effect using an offset lens array and a perpendicular barrier vol.53, pp.27, 2014,
  24. Continuous imaging space in three-dimensional integral imaging vol.22, pp.5, 2013,
  25. Improvement of fill factor in pinhole-type integral imaging display using a retroreflector vol.25, pp.26, 2017,
  26. Simplified Integral Imaging Pickup Method for Real Objects Using a Depth Camera vol.16, pp.4, 2012,
  27. Recent progress in see-through three-dimensional displays using holographic optical elements [Invited] vol.55, pp.3, 2016,
  28. Projection-type integral imaging system using a three-dimensional screen composed of a lens array and a retroreflector film vol.56, pp.13, 2017,
  29. Development of a real-time integral imaging display system based on graphics processing unit parallel processing using a depth camera vol.53, pp.1, 2014,