Processing Optimization of Chocolate with Fermented and Aged Garlic Extract

발효숙성마늘 추출물 첨가 초콜릿 제조 조건의 최적화

  • Shin, Ji-Hun (Department of Food & Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Joo, Na-Mi (Department of Food & Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University)
  • 신지훈 (숙명여자대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학) ;
  • 주나미 (숙명여자대학교 생활과학대학 식품영양학)
  • Received : 2009.06.23
  • Accepted : 2010.04.08
  • Published : 2010.04.30

Abstract

This study was conducted to aid in the development of the optimal recipe for chocolate with fermented and aged garlic extract (Allium sativum var. pekinense). We added garlic extract in order to increase the nutritional value of the chocolate. The optimal sensory composite recipe was determined, following Central Composites for chocolate with different levels of fermented and aged garlic extract (A) and cream (B), while analysis was performed by Response Surface Methodology, from the date that the sensory evaluation was performed. Ten experimental recipes, including 2 reference points in the composition, were selected. The compositional and functional properties were measured, and physical and sensory values were applied to the mathematical models. Perturbation plots showed the influence of each ingredient on the final product. Measurements showed significant values in lightness, sweetness, pH, hardness and cohesiveness, while sensory measurements showed significant values in color, texture, sourness, bitterness and overall quality. The optimum formulations were calculated by numerical and graphical methods, as being 34.61g fermented and aged garlic extract and 72.68g cream for each 200g chocolate. As well it was revealed that the aptitude of chocolate was more influenced by fermented garlic extract than it was by cream.

References

  1. Cho JR, Kim JH, In MJ. 2007. Effect of garlic powder on preparation and quality characteristics of Yogurt. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 50(1):48-52
  2. Nakagawa H, Tsubura A. 2001. Growth inhibitory effects of dially disulfide on human breast cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 22:891-897 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/22.6.891
  3. Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, Peaarson DA, Schmits HH, Gosselin R, Keen C. 2000. Cocoa inhibits platelet activaion and function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72:30-35
  4. Kyung KH. 2006. Growth inhibitory activity of sulfur compounds of garlic against pathogenic microorganism. J. Fd Hyg. Safety. 21:145-152
  5. Fujiwara M, Yoshimura M, Tsuno S. 1995. 'Allihiamine' A newly found dirivatives vitamin B. . On the allicin homologues in the plants of the allium species. J. Biochem. 42:591
  6. Jung IC, Kim WJ, Park SH. 2006. Study of oriental prescription for medical foods applications (II)-Quality and sensory characteristics of chocolate added with Saengmaeg-san-. Korean J. Oriental Physiol. Pathol. 20: 629-633
  7. Kim HK, Kwak, HJ, Kim KH. 2002. Physiological activity and antioxidative effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 11:500-506
  8. 원용섭. 2007. 숙성 흑마늘의 제조 방법. 국내등록특허 10-073842
  9. Park YJ, Nam YL, Jeon BR, Oh NS, In MJ. 2003. Effects of garlic addition on quality and storage characteristics of soybean curd (tofu). J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 46:329-332
  10. Kim YD, Seo JS, Kim KJ, Hur CK, Cho IK. 2005. Component Analysis by Different Heat Treatment of Garlic (Allium saivum L.). Korean J. Food Preserv 12:161-165
  11. Nagatoshi I, Benjamin HS, Kenjiro R, Hiromichi M, Yoichi I. 1999. Antioxidant effects of fructosyl, arginine, a Maillard reaction product in aged garlic extract. J. Nutr. Biochem. 10:373-376
  12. Lee HW. 2004. (The) aerated chocolate made with emulsifier and characteristics of aerated chocolate. The graduate school of engineering Yonsei Univ. p 8
  13. Lee JY, Seo JS, Bang BH, Jeong EJ, Kim KP. 2003. Preparation of chocolate added with Monascus barley Koli powder and quality characteristics. Korean J. Food Nutr. 16:116-122
  14. Nakagawa S, Masamoto K, Sumiyoshi H, Kunihiro K, Fuwa T. 1980. Effect of raw garlic juice and aged garlic extract on growth of young rats and their organs after peroral administration. J. Toxicol. Sci. 5:91-112 https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.5.91
  15. Shin JH, Oh NS, In MJ. 2003. Development of formulation of teabag type garlic tea. J. Korean Acad. Ind. Soc. 4:279-283
  16. Naoaki M, Mitsuyasu U, Naoki K, Isao S, Takeshi N, Minoru H, Hidekatsu T. 2006. Aged garlic extract ameliorates physical fatigue. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29(5):962-966 https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.962
  17. Lawson LD, Wood SG, Hunges BD. 1991. HPLC analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med. 57:263-270 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960087
  18. Akiko H, Toru M. 2006. Aged garlic extract improves blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats more safely than raw garlic. J. Nutr. 136:769S-773S
  19. Freeman F, Kodera Y. 1995. Garlic chemistry: stability of S-(2-propenyl)2-propene-1-sulfinothioate (allicin) in blood, slovents, and simulated physiological fluids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:2332-2338 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00057a004
  20. Yoo KM, Lee KW, Moon BK, Hwang IK. 2005. Antioxidant characteristics and preparation of chocolate added with Sochungryong-Tang (oriental medicinal plants extract). Korean J. Food Cookery Sci. 21:585-590
  21. Song K, Miller JA. 2001. The influence of heating on the anticancer properties of garlic. J. Nutr. 131:1054S-1057S
  22. Eikai K, Naoto U, Shigeo K, Yoichi I. 2001. Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract. J. Nutr. 131:1075S-1079S