Antibiotic Resistant Microbial Contamination (Enterobacter cloacae) Derived from Egg Yolk and Frozen Semen Extender in Porcine In Vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Kwak, Seong-Song (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeong, Se-Heon (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jang, Seung-Hoon (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jeon, Yu-Byeol (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Nam, Young-Hee (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Biswas, Dibyendu (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, Wan-Kyu (Laboratory of Veterinary Bacteriology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Hyun, Sang-Hwan (Laboratory of Veterinary Embryology and Biotechnology (VETEMBIO), College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2010.11.18
  • Accepted : 2010.11.30
  • Published : 2010.12.31

Abstract

The present study was to investigate the source of contamination during semen processing for in vitro uses. In the present study, frozen semen was prepared from liquid semen in our laboratory for in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments due to lack of fresh semen. Antibiotics were added in the frozen semen extender (kanamycin and gentamicin) and in vitro culture (IVC) medium (gentamicin) for further inhibiting growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, proliferations of microorganisms were observed in IVC culture drop during culturing of IVF embryos using frozen semen. Randomly 3 samples were taken from the liquid semen, frozen semen and egg yolk. Contaminated IVC medium, frozen-thawed semen, liquid semen and egg yolk were cultured in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium. Whitish colonies were detected in contaminated IVC drop, frozen-thawed semen samples and egg yolk but no colonies were formed in liquid semen samples. Gram-negative and rod-shaped identical bacteria were found in both frozen-thawed semen sample and contaminated IVC drop and egg yolk samples. Enterobacter cloacae were confirmed by API 20E kit according to manufacturer's instruction with identification value (% ID) 94.3% and T index 0.88. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) by using ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin test. Among them Enterobacter cloacae were resistant to ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin but susceptible to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. From these findings it could be suggested that this contamination sources might be from egg yolk.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Chungbuk National University

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