- Volume 15 Issue 1
This study investigated the effects of water-soluble calcium supplements manufactured with eggshells and oyster shells on growing rats. The aim was to review the potential use of food wastes as materials for water-soluble calcium supplements as compared to water-soluble calcium supplements made from imported seaweed powder. When experimental animals were administered three types of water-soluble calcium supplements orally for six weeks, the serum calcium level of the seaweed calcium supplement group were significantly higher than that of eggshell or oyster shell-derived calcium, but blood alkali phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and urine crosslink levels were not different in the three types of calcium supplements. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content in spine, femur and tibia also were not significantly different among the groups. However, when considering body weight of each group, bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the femur were significantly higher in the oyster shell calcium supplement group. These results suggest that at least on a short-term basis, the effect of calcium supplements prepared from eggshell and oyster shell are similar to the effects of seaweed calcium supplements.
calcium supplements;water-soluble calcium;eggshell;oyster shell;calcium absorption
- Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI). 2006. The third Korea national health & nutrition examination survey (KNHANES III)－Nutrition survey (I). Ministry of Health & Welfare, Seoul, Korea. p 226.
- Miller GD, DiRienzo DD, Reusser ME, McCarron DA. 2000. Benefits of dairy product consumption on blood pressure in human: A summary of the biomedical literature. J Am Coll Nutr 19: 147S-164S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2000.10718085
- Massey LK. 2001. Dairy food consumption, blood pressure and stroke. J Nutr 131: 1875-1878. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.7.1875
- Scalmati A, Lipkin M, Newmark HC. 1992. Vitamin D and colon cancer. In Clinics in Applied Nutrition. Chernoff R, Heaney RP, eds. Andover Med., MA, USA. p 67-74.
- Bryant RJ, Cadogan J, Weaver CM. 1999. The new dietary reference intakes for calcium: Implications for osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 18: 406S-412S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1999.10718905
- Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI). 2006. The third Korea national health & nutrition examination survey (KNHANES III)－Nutrition survey (II). Ministry of Health & Welfare, Seoul, Korea. p 215.
- Sakhaee K, Bhuket T, Adams-Huet B, Sudhaker RD. 1999. Meta-analysis of calcium bioavailability: A comparison of calcium citrate with calcium carbonate. Am J Ther 6: 313-321. https://doi.org/10.1097/00045391-199911000-00005
- Heller HJ, Greer LG, Haynes SD, Pondexter JR, Pak CY. 2000. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of two calcium supplements in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 40: 1237-1244.
- Hanzlik RP, Fowler SC, Fisher DH. 2005. Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 313: 1217-1222. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.081893
- Allen LH. 1982. Calcium bioavailability and absorption: A review. Am J Clin Nutr 35: 783-808. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/35.4.783
- Jang SY, Kwon TK, Jeong YJ, Seo JH, Park YM. 2007. The effect of water soluble calcium supplements on calcium metabolism and bone metabolism of growing rats. Korean J Food Sci Nutr 12: 217-221. https://doi.org/10.3746/JFN.2007.12.4.217
- Jang SY, Baek CH, Jeong KH, Park NY, Jeong YJ. 2005. Effect of vinegar on the solubility of calcium. Korean J Food Preserv 12: 112-116.
- Kind PRN, King ER. 1954. Estimation of plasma phosphatase by determination of hydrolyzed with amino antipyrene. J Clin Pathol 3: 332-334. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.3.4.332
- Hamalainen MM. 1994. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: Comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium. Am J Nutr 124: 874-881. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/124.6.874
- Kleerekoper M. 1996. Biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Am J Med Sci 312: 270-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000441-199612000-00005
- Delmas PD. 1993. Biochemical markers of bone turnover: Theoretical consideration and clinical use in osteoporosis. Am J Med 95 (supple 5A): 11S-16S. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(93)90375-Y
- Louis VA. 1988. Calcium and phosphorus. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Maurice ES, Vernon RY, eds. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. p 142-154.
- Lee SK, Kim YT. 2003. Studies of egg-shell calcium (II): A study on absorption rate of egg-shell calcium in rat. Kor J Fd Hyg Safety 18: 73-78.
- Eyre DR. 1996. Biochemical markers of bone turnover. In Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorder of mineral metabolism. Favus MJ, ed. 3rd ed. Raven Press, New York, USA. p 114-118.
- Eyre DR, Koob TJ, Van ness KP. 1984. Quantitation of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks in collagen by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem 137: 380-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(84)90101-5
- Choi MJ, Jo HJ. 2003. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on bone mineral density in growing female rat. Kor J Nutr 36: 359-367.
- Lee YS, Kim EM. 1998. Effect of ovariectomy and dietary calcium levels on bone metabolism in rats fed low calcium diet during growing period. Kor J Nutr 31: 279-288.
- Schaafsma A, van Doormaal JJ, Muskiet FAJ, Hofstede GJH, Pakan I, Veer E. 2002. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women. British J Nutr 87: 267-275. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001515