Effects of Fermented Garlic Powder on Production Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Profiles and Fatty Acids Composition of Egg Yolk in Laying Hens

  • Ao, X. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Yoo, J.S. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Lee, J.H. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Jang, H.D. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Wang, J.P. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Zhou, T.X. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, I.H. (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2009.10.24
  • Accepted : 2009.12.17
  • Published : 2010.06.01


The effects of fermented garlic powder on production performance, egg quality, blood profiles and fatty acid composition of egg yolk in laying hens were studied in a 35-d experiment. Two-hundred and forty (ISA brown) layers aged 41 weeks were randomly allocated into the following four treatments: i) CON (basal diet); ii) G1 (CON+fermented garlic powder 1.0%); iii) G2 (CON+fermented garlic powder 2.0%) and iv) G3 (CON+fermented garlic powder 3.0%). There were no differences (p>0.05) among treatments in egg production, egg weight, eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness throughout the whole experimental period. However, yolk height was increased significantly (p<0.05) by the addition of fermented garlic powder during the 5th week while yolk color was greater (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in CON and G1 in the 5th week. Compared with CON, Haugh unit was increased (p<0.05) in response to fermented garlic powder treatments during the 5th week. No significant effects on total protein, albumin and IgG were observed in response to any of the treatments over the experimental period (p>0.05). There was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration when the dietary level of fermented garlic powder was increased from 0.0 to 3.0%. The levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in response to G2 and G3 while monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher (p<0.05) in G2 and G3 treatment groups than in CON and G1. Compared with other treatments, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and PUFA:SFA ratio were higher (p<0.05) in G3. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that addition of fermented garlic powder reduced plasma cholesterol concentration and did not cause adverse effects on production performance. Moreover, addition of 3.0% garlic powder decreased SFA but increased PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio in egg yolk.


  1. Birrenkott, G., G. E. Brockenfelt, M. Owens and E. Halpin. 2000. Yolk and blood cholesterol levels and organoleptic assessment of eggs from hens fed a garlic-supplemented diet. Poult. Sci. 79 (Suppl. 1):75 (Abstr.)
  2. Myung, S. C., T. K. Eunsook and T. J. Stewart. 1982. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J. Nutr. 112:241-248
  3. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev.ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC
  4. Sivam, G. P. 2001. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infections by garlic. J. Nutr. 131 (3S), 1106S-1108S
  5. Sharma, R. K., R. A. Singh, R. N. Pal and C. K. Aggarwal. 1979. Cholesterol content of chicken eggs as affected by feeding garlic, sarpagandha, and nicotinic acid. Haryana Agric. Univ. J. Res. 9:263-265
  6. Sakine Yalc and E. Ebru Onbasilar. 2006. Effect of garlic powder on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters of laying hens. J. Sci. Food Agric. 86:1336-1339
  7. Chowdhury, S. R., S. D. Chowdhury and T. K. Smith. 2002. Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterolmetabolism in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 81:1856-1862
  8. Qureshi, A. A., Z. Z. Din, N. Abuirmeileh, W. C. Burger, Y. Ahmad and C. E. Elson. 1983. Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic: Impact on serum lipids. J. Nutr. 113:1746-1755
  9. Sklan, D., Y. N. Berner and H. D. Rabinowitch. 1992. The effect of dietary onion and garlic on hepatic lipid concentrations and activity of antioxidative enzymes in chicks. J. Nutr. Biochem. 3:322-325
  10. SAS institute. 1996. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 7.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
  11. Amagase, H., B. L. Petesch, H. Matsuura, S. Kasuga and Y. Itakura. 2001. Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J. Nutr. 131:955-962
  12. Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509
  13. Konjufca, V. H., G. M. Pesti and R. I. Bakalli. 1997. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper. Poult. Sci. 76:1264-1271
  14. Safaa, M. Hosam. 2007. Effect of dietary garlic or fenugreek on cholestrol metabolism in laying hens. Egypt. Poult. Sci. 27: 1207-1221
  15. Metcalfe, L. D., A. A. Schmitz and J. R. Pelka. 1966. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gaschromatographic analysis. Anal. Chem. 193:514-515
  16. Reddy, R. V., S. F. Lightsey and D. V. Maurice. 1991. Effect of feeding garlic oil on performance and egg yolk cholesterol concentration. Poult. Sci. 70:2006-2009

Cited by

  1. Effects of fermented garlic powder supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs vol.83, pp.5, 2011,
  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented garlic powder on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, blood characteristics and faecal microbial concentration in weanling pigs vol.97, pp.3, 2012,
  3. 14. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Garlic (Allium Sativum) and Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Blood Profile and Oxidative Status in Growing Rabbits vol.16, pp.2, 2016,
  5. Effect of Dietary Fermented Garlic Solution on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Composition in Finishing Period of Laying Hens vol.45, pp.3, 2018,
  6. The Effects of Using Garlic Extract for Quail Hatching Egg Disinfection on Hatching Results and Performance vol.20, pp.2, 2018,