DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Studies on Bacterial and Fungal Contamination in the Herbal Medicines

한약재에서의 세균과 진균 오염에 관한 연구

  • Received : 2010.11.16
  • Accepted : 2010.12.17
  • Published : 2010.12.31

Abstract

The study has been done for about two months through June 2 to July 30 of 2010. The study subjects are three herbal-pharmaceutical companies located in Seoul. Each of them purchased thirteen types of medicinal herbs, then the study did analysis for microbial contamination status of bacteria and fungi. Here, the study focuses on settling out fundamental data bases regarding the investigation standards of microbial contamination. As comparing the study results with contamination limits of bacteria and fungi which are represented by $10^7$ CFU/g and $10^4$ CFU/g in number respectively, the total percentage of fungi contamination which is 12.8% is higher than that of bacteria is only 7.7%. In the DNA homology analysis regarding 16S rRNA gene, 117 of colonization have been selected as study subjects. Including B. cereus composing of resistant spores, soil microbes account for approximately 96.6%. It indicates that it is important to establish collection and preservation systems in handling medicinal herbs. Also, it is critical to manage microbial contamination limits. In conclusion, the study proposes the needs to study on possible mingling of bacteria and fungi in manufacturing process, and microbial contamination status in medicinal herbs.

Keywords

Herbal Medicine;Contamination;Aerobic bacteria;fungus;16S rRNA

References

  1. S. Kimura, et al., "Effects of steam sterilization on changes in the microbial counts, color and consititutes of powered hernbal drugs". Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 751-758, 2003.
  2. I. Kosalec, et al., "Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products". Arh Hig Rada Toksikol., Vol. 60, pp. 485-501, 2009.
  3. H. M. Martins, et al., "Evaluation of microbiological quality of medicinal plants used in natural infusions". Int. J. Food Microbiol., Vol. 68, pp. 149-153, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00480-9
  4. T. E. Chang, et al., "Microflora of manufacturing process and final products of saengshik". Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 501-506, 2004.
  5. 최선미, 정희진, 윤유식, 이미영, 최환수, 성현제 , "한약재 품질 관리에 관한 연구". 대한한의학회지, 제21권 3호, pp. 99-112, 2000.
  6. C. Wilson, et al., "Pathogen growth in herbal teas used in clinical settings: A possible source of nosocomial infection?". Am. J. Infect. Control., Vol. 32, pp. 117-119, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2003.09.004
  7. EP. Biological Tests. Supplement 5.2. "Bacterial Endotoxins. In: European Phamacopoeia (EP)". 5th eds., Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe -European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, 2005.
  8. EPA. "Good Laboratory Practice Standards: Toxic Substances Control Act". CFR. 792, 2003.
  9. FDA. "General Biological Products Standards: General Provisions, Purity". CFR. 610.13, 2005.
  10. T. Hauer, et. al., "Tea as a source of Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia?". Infect Control. Hosp. Epidemiol., Vol. 20, pp. 594, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1086/503149
  11. USP. "Bacterial Endotoxins Test". USP 30 NF25(85). Rockville, MD:The U.S. Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention, 2007a.
  12. USP. "Pyrogen Test". USP30 NF25(151). Rockville, MD: The U.S. Pharmacopeial (USP) Convention, 2007b.
  13. FDA. "Good Laboratory Practices for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies". CFR. 58, 2003.
  14. Japanese Pharmacopeia B 14th eds., B, pp. 287-308, 1999.
  15. Japanese Pharmacopeia B 14th eds., F, pp. 104-106, 1999.
  16. Korean Pharmacopoeia 8th eds. pp. 1616-1632. 2008.
  17. World Health Organization. "WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residue". Geneva, WHO, 2007.
  18. World Health Organization. "Supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices for the manufacture of herbal medicines". Geneva, WHO, 2006.
  19. D. J. Beecher, et al., "Identification and analysis of the antigens detected by two commercial Bacillus cereus diarrheal enterotoxin immuno assay kits". Appl. Environ. Microbiol., Vol. 60, pp. 4614-1651, 1994.
  20. L. K. Nakamura, et. al., "Bacillus pseudomycoides novel species". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., Vol. 48, pp. 1031-1035, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-48-3-1031
  21. B. P. Simmons, et al., "Enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula". Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., Vol. 10, pp. 398-401, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1086/646060
  22. E. Czech, et. al., "Microbiological status of commercially available medicinal herbal drugs". Planta Med., Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 263-269, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-12007
  23. J. C. Borwn, et. al., "Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on herbal products". J. Good Prot., Vol. 71, No. 7, pp. 1486-1490, 2008.
  24. R. S. Farag, et. al., "Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian spice essential oils". J. Food Prot., Vol. 52, pp. 665-667, 1989. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.9.665
  25. S., N. Kimura, et. al., "Effects of steam sterilization on changes in the microbial counts, color and consititutes of powered hernbal drugs". Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 751-758, 2003.
  26. I. Kosalec, et. al., "Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products". Arh. Hig. Rada. Toksikol., Vol. 60, pp. 485-501, 2009.
  27. H. M. Martins, et. al., "Evaluation of microbiological quality of medicinal plants used in natural infusions". Int. J. Food Microbiol. Vol. 68, pp. 149-153, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00480-9
  28. J. Singh, et. al., "Antibacterial activity of yogurt starter in cow and buffalo milk". J. Food Prot., Vol. 42, pp. 664-665, 1979. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-42.8.664
  29. H. D. Belitz, et. al., "Food Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987.
  30. J. A. Morris, "Antimicrobial activity of aroma chemicals and essential oils". J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., Vol. 56, pp. 595-603, 1979. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02660245