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A Comparative Study on PM10 Source Contributions in a Seoul Metropolitan Subway Station Before/After Installing Platform Screen Doors

서울시 지하철 승강장의 스크린도어 설치 전·후 PM10 오염원의 기여도 비교 연구

  • Received : 2010.05.18
  • Accepted : 2010.09.03
  • Published : 2010.10.31

Abstract

Almost five million citizens a day are using subways as a means of traffic communication in the Seoul metropolitan. As the subway system is typically a closed environment, indoor air pollution problems frequently occurs and passengers complain of mal-health impact. Especially $PM_{10}$ is well known as one of the major pollutants in subway indoor environments. The purpose of this study was to compare the indoor air quality in terms of $PM_{10}$ and to quantitatively compare its source contributions in a Seoul subway platform before and after installing platform screen doors (PSD). $PM_{10}$ samples were collected on the J station platform of Subway Line 7 in Seoul metropolitan area from Jun. 12, 2008 to Jan. 12, 2009. The samples collected on membrane filters using $PM_{10}$ mini-volume portable samplers were then analyzed for trace metals and soluble ions. A total of 18 chemical species (Ba, Mn, Cr, Cd, Si, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, Pb, Ti, $Na^+$, $NH_4^+$, $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Cl^-$, and ${SO_4}^{2-}$) were analyzed by using an ICP-AES and an IC after performing proper pre-treatments of each sample filter. Based on the chemical information, positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied to identify the source of particulate matters. $PM_{10}$ for the station was characterized by three sources such as ferrous related source, soil and road dust related source, and fine secondary aerosol source. After installing PSD, the average $PM_{10}$ concentration was decreased by 20.5% during the study periods. Especially the contribution of the ferrous related source emitted during train service in a tunnel route was decreased from 59.1% to 43.8% since both platform and tunnel areas were completely blocked by screen doors. However, the contribution of the fine secondary aerosol source emitted from various outside combustion activities was increased from 14.8% to 29.9% presumably due to ill-managed ventilation system and confined platform space.

Keywords

Subway;Platform screen doors (PSD);Positive matrix factorization (PMF);Source contribution;Indoor Air Quality

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