Emission Characteristics of HFC-23 (CHF3)/HCFC-22 (CHClF2) between Different Air Masses in Northeastern Asia

동북아시아 지역에서의 공기괴별 HFC-23/HCFC-22의 배출특성

  • Li, Shanlan (School of Earth Environment and Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Joo-Il (School of Earth Environment and Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Kyung-Ryul (School of Earth Environment and Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Muhle, Jens (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego)
  • 리선란 (서울대학교 지구환경과학부) ;
  • 김주일 (서울대학교 지구환경과학부) ;
  • 김경렬 (서울대학교 지구환경과학부) ;
  • Received : 2010.02.16
  • Accepted : 2010.08.24
  • Published : 2010.10.31


HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, $CHClF_2$), one of the major components in various refrigeration, is emitted mostly from developing countries, as its consumption is not limited until 2013 by the Montreal Protocol. In addition, HFC-23 (trifluoromethane, $CHF_3$), a by-product in the manufacture of HCFC-22, is also a powerful greenhouse gas. Here, we discuss the regional emission characteristics of these compounds based on high-frequency in-situ measurements using the "Medusa" GC-MS system. HCFC-22 and HFC-23 baseline concentrations measured at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) from November 2007 to December 2008 increased by 1.8 ppt/yr and 0.6 ppt/yr, respectively. Pollution events of these compounds were observed, very frequently (e.g., ~2~3 times) at Gosan than baseline levels. All the measurement data were divided into four groups by simultaneously considering the ratio (HFC-23/HCFC-22) and concentration (HCFC-22) at Trinidad Head (TH, California, USA). The residence time of trajectories were then analyzed in each of the four groups. The results exhibited the existence of a strong correlation with air mass origin for each group: 1) Air masses originating from Siberia in the north and from the Pacific in the south had ratios of 0.08~0.12 and concentrations of 196.9~254.3 ppt which is highly comparable to background air at TH. 2) Air masses passing over the Southern China exhibited similar ratios but higher HCFC-22 concentrations. 3) Air masses passing over the Northern China had ratios of 0.12~0.21. 4) Air masses passing over Korea and/or Japan had ratios of 0.01~0.08. Our results suggest that the HFC-23/HCFC-22 ratio can be used as a good indicator for the assessment of the pollution with Chinese origin. We also confirmed differences in air masses traveling over Northern and Southern China, most likely due to differences in air mass travelling speed over these regions before arriving at Gosan. This signature may be treated as one of the critical components in identifying the emission sources from different parts of China.


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. UNFCC (1997) Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (available at
  2. Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) (2008) Data tables, Eur. Chem. Ind. Counc., Brussels. (available at
  3. Blake, N.J., D.R. Blake, I.J. Simpson, S. Meinardi, A.L. Swanson, J.P. Lopez, A.S. Katzenstein, B. Barletta, T. Shirai, E. Atlas, G. Sachse, M. Avery, S. Vay, H.E. Fuelberg, C.M. Kiley, K. Kita, and F.S. Rowland (2003) NMHCs and halocarbons in Asian continental outflow during the transport and chemical evolution over the pacific (TRACE_P) field campaign: comparison with PEM-West B, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D20), 8806, doi:10.1029/2002JD003367.
  4. CDM(2006) Clean Development Mechanism: HFC Decomposition project in Ulsan. (available at
  5. Draxler, R.R. and G.D. Hess (1998) An overview of the HYSPLIT_ 4 modeling system for trajectories, dispersion and deposition, Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 47(4), 295-308.
  6. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Office of Japan (GIO) (2010) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report of JAPAN, Center for global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, pp. 2-8 (available at index.html/).
  7. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing, in Climate Change 2007: The physical Basis. Contribution of working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K., 213pp.
  8. Jin, F., J. Kim, and K.-R. Kim (2009) Estimation of potential source region in Northeast Asian through in-situ measurement of atmospheric $CO_2$ at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, Terr. Atmos. Ocean Sc. (In press)
  9. Kim, I., S. Li, and K.-R. Kim (2008) Variations of trace gases concentrations and their relationship with the air mass characteristic at Gosan, Korea, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 24(5), 584-593. (in Korean with English abstract)
  10. Kim, J., S. Li., K.-R. Kim, A. Stohl, J. Muhle, S.-K. Kim, M.-K. Park, D.-J. Kang, G. Lee, C.M. Harth, K.P. Salameh, and R.F. Weiss (2010) Top-down estimate of Chinese emissions of major anthropogenic halogenated compounds using in-situ measurements at Gosan, Jeju Island (Korea), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12801, doi: 10.1029/2010 GL043263.
  11. McCulloch, A. and A.A. Lindley (2007) Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to year 2015, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1560-1566.
  12. Miller, B., R. Weiss, P. Salameh, T. Tanhua, B. Greally, J. Muhle, and P. Simmonds (2008) Medusa: A sample preconcentration and GC/MS detector system for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds, Anal. Chem., 80(5), 1536-1545.
  13. Molina, M.J. and F.S. Rowland (1974) Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes:chlorine atomc-atalysed destruction of ozone, Nature, 249, 810-812.
  14. Montzka, S.A., B.D. Hall, and J.W. Elkins (2009) Accelerated increases observed for Hydrochlorofluorocarbons since 2004 in the global atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03804, doi:10.1029/2008GL036475.
  15. Moon, K.J., J.S. Han, B.J. Kong, M.D. Lee, and I.R. Jung (2005) Characteristics of chemical species in gaseous and aerosol phase measured at Gosan, Korea during ABC-EAREX2005, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 21(6), 675-687. (in Korean with English abstract)
  16. O’Doherty, S., P.G. Simmonds, D.M. Cunnold, H.J. Wang, G.A. Sturrock, P.J. Fraser, D. Ryall, R.G. Derwent, R.F. Weiss, P. Salamech, B.R. Miller, and R.G. Prinn (2001) In situ chloroform measurements at advanced global atmospheric gases experiment atmospheric research stations from 1994 to 1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 21429-20444.
  17. Park, M.-K., H.-M. Cho, J.-C. Nam, J. Kim, and K.R. Kim (2001) A simple interface for a gas chromatography system for air samples in sub-ambient pressure, Bull. Korean. Chem. Soc., 22, 1273-1276.
  18. Poirot, R.L. and P.R. Wishinski (1986) Visibility, sulfate and air mass history associated with the summertime aerosol in northern Vermont, Atmos. Environ., 20(7), 1457-1469.
  19. Prinn, R.G., R. Weiss, P. Fraser, P. Simmonds, D. Cunnold, F.N. Alyea, S. O’Doherty, P. Salameh, B. Miller, J. Huang, R.H.J. Wang, D.E. Hartley, C. Harth, L.P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. Midgley, and A. McCulloch (2000) A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 17751-17792.
  20. Reimann, S., M.K. Vollmer, D. Folini, M. Steinbacher, M. Hill, B. Buchmann, R. Zander, and E. Mahieu (2008) Observations of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons at the high-alpine site of Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) for assessment of trends and European sources, Sci. Total Environ., 391, 224-231.
  21. Song, M., M. Lee, K.J. Moon, J.S. Han, K.-R. Kim, and G. Lee (2006) Chemical characteristics of fine aerosols during ABC-EAREX2005, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 604-613. (in Korean with English abstract)
  22. Stohl, A., C. Forster, A. Frank, P. Seibert, and G. Wotawa (2005) Technical note: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEX-PART version 6.2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5(9), 2461-2474.
  23. Stohl, A., J. Kim, S. Li, S. O’Doherty, P.K. Salameh, T. Saito, M.K. Vollmer, Y. Yokouchi, D. Wan, and L.X. Zhou (2010) Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1671-1687.
  24. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009) Handbook for the Montreal protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Ozone Secretariat, Eighth Ed., UNEP, Nairobi.
  25. Wan, D., J.H, Xu, J.B. Zhang, X.C. Tong, and J.X. Hu (2009) Historical and projected emissions of major halocarbons in China, Atmos. Environ., 43(36), 5822-5829, doi:10,1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.052.
  26. Yokouchi, Y., S. Taguchi, T. Saito, Y. Tohjima, H. Tanimoto, and H. Mukai (2006) High frequency measurements of HFCs at a remote site in east Asia and their implications for Chinese emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21814, doi:10.1029/2006GL026403.
  27. Yokouchi, Y., T. Inagaki, K. Yazawa, T. Tamaru, T. Enomoto, and K. Izumi (2005) Estimates of ratios of anthropogenic halocarbon emissions from Japan based on aircraft monitoring over Sagami Bay, Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D06301, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005320.
  28. Zhou, L.X., J. Tang, Y.P. Wen, J.L. Li, P. Yan, and X.C. Zhang (2003) The impact of local winds and longrange transport on the continuous carbon dioxide record at Mount Waliguan, China, Tellus, 55B: 145-158.