DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Characteristics of Persistent of Hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) in Ambient Air-Soil-Water-Sediment for a Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs)

신규 잔류성 유기오염물질(Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants E-POPs) 핵사클로로시클로핵산(HCH)의 대기-토양-물-저질에서의 잔류특성

  • Hwang, Sung-Min (Department of Environment Atmospheric Science, Graduate School of Earth Environmental Engineering, Dioxin Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Seok-Hyung (Department of Environment Atmospheric Science, Graduate School of Earth Environmental Engineering, Dioxin Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Park, No-Jin (Department of Environment Atmospheric Science, Graduate School of Earth Environmental Engineering, Dioxin Research Center, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Ok, Gon (Department of Environment Atmospheric Science, Graduate School of Earth Environmental Engineering, Dioxin Research Center, Pukyong National University)
  • 황성민 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과 지구환경공학 대학원 다이옥신연구센터) ;
  • 이석형 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과 지구환경공학 대학원 다이옥신연구센터) ;
  • 박노진 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과 지구환경공학 대학원 다이옥신연구센터) ;
  • 옥곤 (부경대학교 환경대기과학과 지구환경공학 대학원 다이옥신연구센터)
  • Received : 2010.07.15
  • Accepted : 2010.10.27
  • Published : 2010.12.31

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyze the persistence of HCH in atmosphere, soil, sediment and water of the western and southern regions of Korea. The samples from the western region were collected from Anmyeon Island, and the samples from the southern region were collected from Kimhae and Busan. The concentration of HCH isomers in atmosphere showed the pattern of $\alpha$-HCH>$\gamma$-HCH>$\beta$-HCH. The regions with high HCH concentration in the atmosphere are the regions that have been highly exposed to HCH used in the past, and the areas that have been influenced by the long range transport. The HCH that persists in the soil, water and sediment evaporates into the atmosphere, showing the characteristics of Air-Surface exchange. When the regional concentration distributions are compared, the concentration of HCH was higher in the atmosphere of a plain and the cities near the plain, than the urban areas. In this study, the ratio of $\alpha/\beta$-HCH was used as an indicator for estimating the source of Technical HCH and Lindane. According to the result, the contribution of Lindane was high in Kimhae plain and Kimhae urban areas. However, in Busan, the contribution of Technical HCH was higher than Lindane. In case of Anmyeon Island, the western region of Korea had high contribution from Tehcnical HCH. In soil and sediment, $\beta$-HCH was dominant. In water, $\gamma$-HCH was dominant among other isomers. Such results are due to $\gamma$-HCH inLindane. Furthermore, the source of $\gamma$-HCH in urban areas is assumed to be the use of medicine, medical supplies and other living supplies. Based on the results of this study, the management of HCH, a newly list up emerging POPs, should be strengthened by further research on sources, fate, persistency, accumulation and exposures and etc. to the risk assessments.

Keywords

HCH;POPs;Technical HCH;Lindane;$\alpha/\gamma$-HCH ratio;Air-Surface exchange

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 부경대학교

References

  1. Barber, J. L., Sweetman, A. J., Van Wijk, D., Jones, K. C., 2005, Hexachlorobenzene in the global environment: Emissions, levels, distribution, trends and processes, Science of the Total Environment, 349, 1-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.03.014
  2. Bidleman, T. F., Leone, A. D., 2004, Soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Southern United States, Environmental Pollution, 128, 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.034
  3. Brubaker, W. W. J., Hites, R. A., 1998, OH Reaction Kinetics of Gas-Phase ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\gamma}-Hexachlorocyclohexane$ and Hexachlorobenzene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 766-769. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970650b
  4. Hoai, P. M., Ngoc, N. T., Minh, N. H., Viet, P. H., Berg, M., Alder, A. C., Giger, W., 2010, Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam, Environmental Pollution, 158, 913-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.09.018
  5. Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Sakai, N., Tatsukawa, R., 1993, Distribution of persistent organochlorines in oceanic air and surface seawater and role of ocean on their global transport and fate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 1080-1098. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00043a007
  6. Kalantzi, O. I., Alcock, R. E., Johnston, P. A., Santillo, D., Stringer, R. L., Thomas, G. O., Jones, K. C., 2001, The global distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in butter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0002464
  7. Korea Food and Drug Administration, 2009, Information on adverse drug reactions, 44, 120-121.
  8. Kucklick, J. R., Hinckley, D. A., Bidleman, T. F., 1991, Determination of Henry's law constants for hexachlorocyclohexanes in distilled water and artificial seawater as a function of temperature, Marine Chem., 34, 197-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(91)90003-F
  9. Lakaschus, S., Weber, K., Wania, F., Bruhn, R., Schrems, O., 2002, The air-sea equilibrium and time trend of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Atlantic Ocean between the Arctic and Antarctica, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 138-145. https://doi.org/10.1021/es010211j
  10. Lammel, G., Ghim, Y. S., Grados, A., Gao, H., Huhnerfuss, H., Lohmann, R., 2007, Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 452-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.045
  11. Lauenstein, G. G., Daskalakis, K. D., 1998, U.S. long-term coastal contaminant temporal trends determined from mollusk monitoring programs, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 37, 6-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00125-8
  12. Li, B. G., Cao, J., Liu, W. X., Shen, W. R., Wang, X. J., Tao, S., 2006, Geostatistical analysis and kriging of Hexachlorocyclohexane residues in topsoil from Tianjin, China, Environmental Pollution, 142, 567-575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.039
  13. Li, J., Zhang, G., Qi, S., Li, X., Peng, X., 2006, Concentrations, enantiomeric compositions, and sources of HCH, DDT and chlordane in soils from the Pearl River Delta, South China, Science of the Total Environment, 372, 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.023
  14. Li, Y. F., 1999, Global technical hexachlorocyclohexane usage and its contamination consequences in the environment: From 1948 to 1997, Sci. of the Total Environment, 232, 121-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00114-X
  15. Li, Y. F., Scholtz, M. T., van Heyst, B. J. J., 2000, Global gridded emission inventories of ${\alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane$, Geophys. Res., 105, 6621-6632. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD901081
  16. Li, X. H., Wang, W., Wang, J., Cao, X. L., Wang, X. F., Liu, J. C., Liu, X. F., Xu, X. B., Jiang, X. N., 2008, Contamination of soils with organochlorine pesticides in urban parks in Beijing, China, Chemosphere, 70, 1660-1668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.07.078
  17. Macdonald, R. W., Barrie, L. A., Bidleman, T. F., Diamond, M. L., Gregor, D. J., Semkin, R. G., Strachan, W. M. J., Li, Y. F., Wania, F., Alaee, M., Backus, S., Bewers, M., Gobeil, C., Halsall,C., Hoff, J., Lockhart, L., Mackay, D., Muir, D., Pudykiewicz, J., Reimer, K., Smith, J., Stern, G., Schroeder, W., Wagemann, R.,Yunker, M., 2000, Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: 5 years of progress in understanding sources, occurrence and pathways, Science of the Total Environment, 254, 93-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00434-4
  18. Murayama, H., Takase, Y., Mitobe, H., Mukai H., Ohzeki, T., Shimzu, K. I., Kitayama, Y., 2003, Seasonal change of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in air at Niigata area, Japan, Chemosphere, 52 ,683-694. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00105-X
  19. Ok, G., Jung, B., Kim, C., Lee, S., Hwang, S., Park, N., 2007, Monitoring of HCHs (HEXACHLORCYCLOHEXANE ISOMERS; a-, b-, r- HCH) of Ambient air, soil, fresh water and river sediment KOREA, Organic halogen compounds, 69, 1444-1447.
  20. Picer, M., Picer, N., 1995, Levels and long-term trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDTs in bivalves collected from the south Adriatic coastal waters, Chemosphere, 30,1, 31-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)00374-4
  21. Ramesh, A., Tanabe, S., Murase, H., Subramanian, A. N., Tatsukawa, R., 1991, Distribution and behaviour of persistent organochlorine insecticides in paddy soil and sediments in the tropical environment: a case study in South India, Environmental Pollution, 74, 293-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(91)90077-A
  22. Sundqvista, K. L., Wingforsa, H., Brorstom-Lundenb, E., Wiberga, K., 2004, Air-sea gas exchange of HCHs and PCBs and enantiomers of ${\alpha}-HCH$ in the Kattegat Sea region, Environmental Pollution, 128, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.022
  23. UNEP 2002a, Indian Ocean Report, Regional Report, Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances.
  24. UNEP 2002b, Central and Northeast Asia Regional Report, Regionally Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances.
  25. Wania, F., Mackay, D., 1995, A global distribution model for persistent organic pollutants. Sci. of the Total Environment, 160/161, 211-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04358-8
  26. Voldner, E. C., Li, Y., Li, F., 1995, Global usage of selected persistent organochlorines, Sci. of the Total Environment, 160/161, 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04357-7
  27. Wenzel, K. D., Manz, M., Hubert, A., Schuurmann, G.,2002, Fate of POPs(DDX, HCHs, PCBs)in upper soil layers of pine forests, Science of the Total Environment, 286 ,143-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00972-X
  28. Willett, K. L., Ulrich, E. M., Hites, R. A., 1998, Differential Toxicity and Environmental Fates of Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 15, 2197-2207. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9708530
  29. Wu, W. Z., Xu, Y., Schramm, K. W., Kettrup, A., 1997, Study of sorption biodegradation and isomerization of HCH in stimulated sediment/water system, Chemosphere, 35, 1887-1894. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00266-X
  30. Yang, W., Wang, R., Zhou, C., Li, F., 2009, Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in industrial site soils: A case study of urban renewal in Beijing, China, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21, 366-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62278-0
  31. Zhang, Z. L., Hong, H. S., Zhou, J. L., Huang, J., Yu, G., 2003, Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China, Chemosphere, 52, 1423-1430. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00478-8
  32. Zhou, R., Zhu, L., Yang, K., Chen, Y., 2006, Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in surface water and sediments from Qiantang River, East China, Journal of Hazardous Materials, A137, 68-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.02.005