Hopping Routing Scheme to Resolve the Hot Spot Problem of Periodic Monitoring Services in Wireless Sensor Networks

주기적 모니터링 센서 네트워크에서 핫 스팟 문제 해결을 위한 호핑 라우팅 기법

  • Heo, Seok-Yeol (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pusan National University) ;
  • Lee, Wan-Jik (Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pusan National University) ;
  • Jang, Seong-Sik (Department of Mobile Internet, Yeungnam College of Science and Technology) ;
  • Byun, Tae-Young (School of Information Communication Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu) ;
  • Lee, Won-Yeol (Department of Cyber and Police Science, Youngsan University)
  • 허석렬 (부산대학교 바이오메디컬공학과) ;
  • 이완직 (부산대학교 바이오메디컬공학과) ;
  • 장성식 (영남이공대학 모바일인터넷과) ;
  • 변태영 (대구가톨릭대학교 정보통신공학과) ;
  • 이원열 (영산대학교 사이버경찰학과)
  • Published : 2009.09.30


In this paper we proposed a hopping routing scheme to resolve the hot spot problem for periodic monitoring services in wireless sensor networks. Our hopping routing scheme constructs load balanced routing path, where an amount of energy consumption of all nodes in the sensor networks is predictable. Load balanced routing paths can be obtained from horizontal hopping transmission scheme which balances the load of the sensor nodes in the same area, and also from vertical hopping transmission scheme which balances the load of the sensor nodes in the other area. The direct transmission count numbers as load balancing parameter for vertical hopping transmission are derived using the energy consumption model of the sensor nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed hopping scheme resolves the hot spot problem effectively. The efficiency of hopping routing scheme is also shown by comparison with other routing scheme such as multi-hop, direct transmission and clustering.


  1. Holger Karl and Andreas Willing, "Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks," pp. 290-330, WILEY, 2005.
  2. I. F. Akyildiz et al., "Wireless sensor networks: a survey," Computer Networks, Vol. 38, pp. 393- 422, March 2002.
  3. R. C. Shah and J. M. Rabaey, "Energy Aware Routing for Low Energy Ad Hoc Sensor Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Vol. 1, pp. 350-355, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2002.
  4. J. Gomez and A.T. Campbell, "A case for variable-range transmission power control in wireless multihop networks," proc. of the 23rd International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM'04), pp. 1425-1436, 2004.
  5. Y. Xu, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin, Adaptive energy-conserving routing for multihop ad hoc networks," Research Report 527, USC/ISI, October 2000,URL.
  6. W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 660-670, Oct. 2002.
  7. Jing Deng, Yunghsiang S. Han, Wendi B. Heinzelman and Pramod K. Varshney, "Balanced-energy sleep scheduling for high density cluster based sensor networks," Computer Communications Vol. 28, pp. 1631-1642, September 2005.
  8. M. Perillo, Z. Cheng and W. B. Heinzelman, "On the problem of unbalanced load distribution in wireless sensor networks," GlobeCom Workshops 2004, IEEE, Nov. 29 - Dec. 3, pp. 74-79, 2004.
  9. M. Younis, M. Youssef and K. Arisha, "Energy aware routing in cluster based sensor networks," Proceedings of the 10th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS2002), pp. 129-136, Fort Worth, TX, Oct. 2002.
  10. Gao J. and Zhang L., "Load-Balanced Short-Path Routing in Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 17(4), pp. 377-388, April 2006.
  11. Stanislava Soro and Wendi B. Heinzelman, "Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks via Unequal Clustering," Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (IEEEWMAN'05), pp. 236-243, April 2005.
  12. Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, Deborah Estrin and John Heidemann, "Directed diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking," IEEE/ACM Transactions on networking. Vol. 11, pp.2-16, Feb. 2003.