Ammonia Volatilization from Rice Paddy Soils Fertilized with 15N-Urea Under Elevated CO2 and Temperature

  • Lim, Sang-Sun ;
  • Kwak, Jin-Hyeob ;
  • Lee, Dong-Suk ;
  • Lee, Sun-Il ;
  • Park, Hyun-Jung ;
  • Kim, Han-Yong ;
  • Nam, Hong-Shik ;
  • Cho, Kyeong-Min ;
  • Choi, Woo-Jung
  • Published : 2009.09.30


It has widely been observed that the effect of elevating atmospheric $CO_2$ concentrations on rice productivity depends largely on soil N availabilities. However, the responses of ammonia volatilization from flooded paddy soil that is an important pathway of N loss and thus affecting fertilizer N availability to concomitant increases in atmospheric $CO_2$ and temperature has rarely been studied. In this paper, we first report the interactive effect of elevated $CO_2$ and temperature on ammonia volatilization from rice paddy soils applied with urea. Urea labeled with $^{15}N$ was used to quantitatively estimate the contribution of applied urea-N to total ammonia volatilization. This study was conducted using Temperature Gradient Chambers (TGCs) with two $CO_2$ levels [ambient $CO_2$ (AC), 383 ppmv and elevated $CO_2$ (EC), 645 ppmv] as whole-plot treatment (main treatment) and two temperature levels [ambient temperature (AT), $25.7^{\circ}C$ and elevated temperature (ET), $27.8^{\circ}C$] as split-plot treatments (sub-treatment) with triplicates. Elevated temperature increased ammonia volatilization probably due to a shift of chemical equilibrium toward $NH_3$ production via enhanced hydrolysis of urea to $NH_3$ of which rate is dependent on temperature. Meanwhile, elevated $CO_2$ decreased ammonia volatilization and that could be attributed to increased rhizosphere biomass that assimilates $NH_4^+$ otherwise being lost via volatilization. Such opposite effects of elevated temperature and $CO_2$ resulted in the accumulated amount of ammonia volatilization in the order of ACET>ACAT>ECET>ECAT. The pattern of ammonia volatilization from applied urea-$^{15}N$ as affected by treatments was very similar to that of total ammonia volatilization. Our results suggest that elevated $CO_2$ has the potential to decrease ammonia volatilization from paddy soils applied with urea, but the effect could partially be offset when air temperature rises concomitantly.


Ammonia Emission;Global Warming;Paddy Fields;Urea Hydrolysis


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