Relationship Between Nutrient Intake and Bone Mineral Density in 20∼30 Year-old Korean Women

  • Shin, Yoon-Jin ;
  • Kwun, In-Sook ;
  • Woon, Young-Jun ;
  • Kim, Yang-Ha
  • Published : 2009.09.30


The achievement of maximal peak bone mineral density (BMD) in early life is one of the most important strategies for the prevention of osteoporosis, which is affected by nutritional status. However, it has been reported that young Korean women do not consume the optimal levels of nutrients because of the frequent practice of body weight reduction. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between nutrient intakes and BMD in young Korean women. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Information on health status, lifestyle and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. Dietary intake was ascertained from a 3-day dietary record. The study sample included 112 Korean women aged 20$\sim$39 yr. In accordance with the energy intake of subjects, individuals who had an energy intake that was greater than 80% of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake (KDRI) were assigned to the control group (Control), while those who had an energy intake lower than 80% of the KDRI were assigned to the low intake group (LI). The intake of all nutrients in the LI group was significantly lower than that of the Control. Control subjects also showed nutrient intakes higher than the KDRI, except for Ca and folate. However, LI subjects showed intakes of energy, fiber, Ca, Fe, K, Zn, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and folate that were lower than the KDRI. The BMD of the lumbar spine in LI subjects was significantly lower than that of the Control subjects. These results suggested that lower nutrient intake has a negative impact on BMD in young women.


nutrient intake;bone mineral density;osteoporosis;peak bone mass;young women


  1. Kim KS, Na SK, Son HY, Yang KH. 2000. Osteoporosis. 2nd ed. The Korean Society of Bone Metabolism. p 2
  2. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Ministry of health and welfare. 2007. Study of an osteoporosis management program in Korea. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Seoul
  3. Lee JS, Yoo CH. 1999. Some factors affecting bone mineral density of Korean rural women. Korea J Nutr 32: 935-945
  4. McGuigan FE, Murray L, Gallagher A, Davey-Smith G, Neville CE, Van't Hof R, Boreham C, Ralston SH. 2002. Genetic and environmental determinants of peak bone mass in young men and women. J Bone Miner Res 17: 1273-1279
  5. Park HS, Lee HO, Sung CJ. 1997. Body image, eating problems and dietary intakes among female college students in urban area of Korea. Korean J Soc Nutr 2: 505-514
  6. Comerci GD. 1998. Eating disorders in adolescent. Pediat Rev 10: 37-47
  7. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Ministry of health and welfare. 2006. Report on 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, Seoul
  8. Hamdy RC, Petak SM, Lenchik L. 2002. Which central dual X-ray absorptiometry skeletal sites and regions of interest should be used to determine the diagnosis of osteoporosis? J Clin Densitom 5 Suppl: S11-18
  9. Hong HO, Lee OH, Jeong DC, So JM, Ryoichi N, Choi EC, Hwang GH, Ahn EH. 2001. A study of dietary intake and bone mineral density in competitive female athletes. Korea J Nutr 34: 645-655
  10. Choi MJ. 2002. Effects of nutrient intake and exercise on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in premenopausal women. Korea J Nutr 35: 473-479
  11. Mazess RB, Barden H. 1999. Bone density of the spine and femur in adult white females. Calcif Tissue Int 65: 91-99
  12. Compston JE, Laskey MA, Croucher PI, Coxon A, Kreitzman S. 1992. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on total body bone mass. Clin Sci (Lond) 82: 429-432
  13. Kim JM. 2005. An analysis of related factors and nutrients intake affecting bone mineral density of college women in Daegu area. J Korean Diet Assoc 11: 86-94
  14. Bhatia V. 2008. Dietary calcium intake-a critical reappraisal. Indian J Med Res 127: 269-273
  15. Frankie P. 2004. Diet and bone health. Nutrition Bulletin 29: 99-110.
  16. Weaver CM. 1997. Calcium nutrition: strategies for maximal bone mass. J Womens Health 6: 1661-1664
  17. Fujiwara S, Kasagi F, Masunari N, Naito K, Suzuki G, Fukunaga M. 2003. Fracture prediction from bone mineral density in Japanese men and women. J Bone Miner Res 18: 1547-1553
  18. Nguyen TV, Maynard LM, Towne B, Roche AF, Wisemandle W, Li J, Guo SS, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM. 2001. Sex differences in bone mass acquisition during growth: the Fels Longitudinal Study. J Clin Densitom 4: 147-157
  19. Mets JA, Anderson JJ, Gallagher PN Jr. 1993. Intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and protein, and physical-activity level are related to radial bone mass in young adult women. Am J Cli Nutr 58: 537-542
  20. Liel Y, Edwards J, Shary J, Spicer KM, Gordon L, Bell NH. 1988. The effects of race and body habitus on bone mineral density of the radius, hip, and spine in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66: 1247- 1250.
  21. Woo J, Lau W, Xu L, Lam CW, Zhao X, Yu W, Xing X, Lau E, Kuhn-Sherlock B, Pocock N, Eastell R. 2007. Milk supplementation and bone health in young adult chinese women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 16: 692-702
  22. Mizushima S, Tsuchida K, Yamori Y. 1999. Preventive nutritional factors in epidemiology: interaction between sodium and calcium. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 26: 573-575