Dechlorination of Organochlorine Insecticide, Endosulfan by Zerovalent Iron

Zerovalent Iron에 의한 유기염소계 살충제 Endosulfan의 탈염소화

  • Shin, Hyun-Su (School of Applied Bioscience, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Taek-Kyum (School of Applied Bioscience, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Jang-Eok (School of Applied Bioscience, Kyungpook National University)
  • 신현수 (경북대학교 농업생명과학대학 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 김택겸 (경북대학교 농업생명과학대학 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 김장억 (경북대학교 농업생명과학대학 응용생명과학부)
  • Published : 2009.06.30


The dechlorination of endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide) and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate via reaction with zerovalent iron under various pH conditions was studied using aqueous solution. The reaction products, which were probably produced from endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate by ZVI were identified by GC-MS. The lower the pH of reaction solution, the higher the transformation rate of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate. The transformation rates of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in pH 3.0 by ZVI were 28% and 90% but those of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in mixture solution of water/acetone were 65% and 92%, respectively. The pH of reaction solution after ZVI treatment was increased to pH 10. Endosulfan was hydrolyzed at pH 10 but endosulfan sulfate was not hydrolyzed. Two unknown peaks were produced from endosulfan sulfate by treatment of ZVI. As a result of GC-MS analysis, unknown peaks were guessed to be structural isomer substituted hydrogen for chlorine.


  1. Lee, K. B., Shim, J. H. and Suh, Y. T. (1994) In vivo metabolism of endosulfan in carp(Cyprinus carpio L.), Agric. Chem. and Biotech. 37(3), 194-202
  2. Tomlin, C. D. S. (1997) The Pesticide Manual, 11th ed., British Crop Protection Council, UK, p.459-461
  3. Awasthi, N., Ahuja, R. and Kumar, A. (2000) Factors influencing the degradation of soil-applied endosulfan isomers, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 32, 1697-1705
  4. Kullman, S. W. and Matsumura, F. (1996) Metabolic pathways utilized by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for degradation of the cyclodiene pesticide endosulfan, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 662(2), 593-600
  5. Chaudhuri, K., Selvaraj, S. and Pal, A. K. (1999) Studies on the genotoxicity of endosulfan in bacterial systems, Mutation Research, 439, 63-67
  6. Hack, R., Ebert, E. and Leist, K. H. (1995) Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies whith the insecticide endosulfan in rats and mice, Food Chem. Toxicol. 33(11), 941-950
  7. Siantar, D. P., Schreier, C. G., Chou, C.-S. and Reinhard, M. (1996) Treatment of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and nitrate-contaminated water with zero valent iron or hydrogen/palladium catalysts, Water Res. 30(10), 2315-2322
  8. Korte, N. E. Zutman, J. L., Schlosser, R. M., Liang, L., Gu, B., and Fernando, Q. ( 2000) Field application of palladized iron for dechlorination of trichloroethene, Waste Management, 20, 687-694
  9. Liu, Y., Yang, F., Yue, P. L. and Chen, G. (2001) Catalytic dechlorination of chlorophenols in water by palladium/iron, Water. Res., 35(8), 1887-1899
  10. Chen, J.-L., Al-Abed, S. R., Ryan, J. A. and Li, Z. (2001) Effects of pH on dechlorination of trichloroethylene by zero-valent iron, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B83, 243-254
  11. Morales, J., Hutcheson, R. and Cheng, I. F. (2002) Dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by catalyzed and uncatalyzed Fe(0) and Mg(0) particles, Journal of Hazardous Material, B90, 97-108
  12. Cheng, S.-F. and Wu, S.-C. (2000) The enhancement methods for the degradation of TCE by zero-valent meta, Chemosphere, 41, 1263-1270
  13. Cho, H.-H. and Park, J.-W. (2002) Effect of surfactant and natural organic matter on reductive dechlorination of TCE by Zero-valent iron, J. of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 24(4), 689-696
  14. Tratney, P. G., Sherer M. M., Deng, B. and Hu, S. (2001) Effects of natural organic matter, anthropogenic surfactants, and model quinones on the reduction of contaminants by zero-valent iron, Wat. Res., 35(18), 4435-4443
  15. Kim, D. H., Choi, C-L., Kim, T-H., Park, M and Kim, J-E., (2007) Degradation patterns of organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos by functional zerovalent iron, J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem., 50(4), 321-326
  16. Lee, K-H., Kim, T-H and Kim, J-E (2008) Oxidative degradation of the herbicide dicamba induced by zerovalent iron, Korean J. of Environmental Agriculture, 27(1), 86-91
  17. Yun, J-K., Kim, T-H and Kim, J-E (2008) Dechlorination of the fungicide chlorothalonil by zerovalent iron and manganese oxides, The Korean Journal of Pesticides Science, 12(1), 43-49
  18. Dombek, T., Dolan, E., Schultz, J. and Klarup, D. (2001) Rapid reductive dechlorination of atrazine by zero-valent iron under acidic conditions, Environmental Pollution, 111, 21-27
  19. Monson, S. J., Ma, L., Cassada, D. A. and Spalding, R. F. (1998) Confirmation and method development for dechlorinated atrazine from reductive dehalogenation of atrazine with $Fe^0$, Analytica Chimica Acta, 373, 153-160
  20. Ghauch, A., Gallet, C., Charef, A., Rima, J. and Martin-Bouyer, M. (2001) Reduction degradation of carbaryl in water by zero-valent iron, Chemosphere, 42, 419-424
  21. Hundal, L. S., Singh, J., Bier, E. L., Shea, P. J., Comfort, S. D. and Powers, W. L. (1997) Removal of TNT and RDX from water and soil using iron metal, Environmental Pollution, 97, 55-64
  22. Agrawal, A. and Tratnyek, P. G. (1996) Reduction of nitro aromatic compounds by zero-valent iron metal, Environ. Sci. Technol., 30, 153-160
  23. Engelman, M. D., Doyle, J. D. and Cheng, I. F. (2001) The complete dechlorination of DDT by magnesium/palladium bimetallic particle, Chemosphere, 43, 195-198
  24. Zhang, W.-X., Wang, C.-B. and Lien, H.-L. (1998) Treatment of chlorinated organic contamintants with nanoscale bimetalic particles, Catalysis Today, 40, 387-395

Cited by

  1. Degradation of Fungicide Tolclofos-methyl by Chemical Treatment vol.29, pp.4, 2010,