Overview of Cadmium Exposure from Plant-based Food Consumption in Global Population especially in Asia and Techniques to Reduce the Risks to Human Health

인체 건강에 위해성을 감소시키기 위한 기술과 세계 인구. 특히 아시아에서 식품 소비에 근거한 식물체로부터의 카드늄 노출 개관에서는 전세계 카드늄

  • Su, S.W. (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Chen, Z.S. (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University)
  • Received : 2009.06.12
  • Accepted : 2009.08.06
  • Published : 2009.12.28

Abstract

Agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium (Cd) are common problems in Asia due to rapid industrial development, so the risks of Cd exposure from food crops consumption are concerned by public and authorities. The latest data on Cd concentration in plant-based food and the dietary intakes of Cd around the world are presented in this review. In general, Cd concentrations in major plant-based commodities seldom exceed 0.05 mg/kg fresh weight and decline in the order as: cereals > pulses > vegetables > roots and tubers > fruits in Far Eastern region. In Middle Eastern and European regions, the order is vegetables > cereals > roots and tubers > pulses > fruits. Rice has the highest Cd levels among cereals in Asian countries, but in Middle Eastern and European region the highest level of Cd occurred in leaf vegetables. The dietary intakes of Cd from plant-based commodities around the world declined in the order as: cereals > vegetables > roots and tubers > fruits > pulses. Rice is the largest contributor to total dietary Cd intake (58%) in the Far Eastern region and contributed 36% of Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI). For high foodstuffs consumers, intake of Cd from all diets may exceed PTWI, especially for high rice consumers in Asian countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted impact assessment of different maximum levels (MLs) of Cd and demonstrated that each of the four possible MLs for rice had little impact on dietary Cd intake. Since many Cd-contaminated soils in Asian countries still producing crops due to the growing population, the cost-effective techniques for reducing Cd contents in crops especially rice grain are absolutely required.

Keywords

Dietary intake of cadmium;Food safety;Plant-based commodity;Maximum levels assessment;Rice