Isotope Ratio of Mineral N in Pinus Densiflora Forest Soils in Rural and Industrial Areas: Potential Indicator of Atmospheric N Deposition and Soil N Loss

질소공급, 고추의 생육 및 수량에 대한 녹비작물 환원 효과

  • Kwak, Jin-Hyeob (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Lim, Sang-Sun (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Park, Hyun-Jung (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Sun-Il (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Dong-Suk (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Kye-Han (Department of Forestry, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Han, Gwang-Hyun (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ro, Hee-Myong (Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Mo (National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, Woo-Jung (Department of Biosystems & Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Chonnam National University)
  • 곽진협 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과) ;
  • 임상선 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과) ;
  • 박현정 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과) ;
  • 이선일 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과) ;
  • 이동석 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과) ;
  • 이계한 (전남대학교 산림자원조경학부) ;
  • 한광현 (충북대학교 농화학과) ;
  • 노희명 (서울대학교 응용생물화학부) ;
  • 이상모 (서울대학교 농생명과학공동기기원) ;
  • 최우정 (전남대학교 농업과학기술원 생물산업공학과)
  • Received : 2009.01.12
  • Accepted : 2009.02.10
  • Published : 2009.02.28

Abstract

Deposition of atmospheric N that is depleted in $^{15}N$ has shown to decrease N isotope ratio ($^{15}N/^{14}N$,expressed as ${\delta}^{15}N$) of forest samples such as tree rings, foliage, and total soil-N. However, its effect on ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral soil-N which is biologically active N pool has never been tested. In this study, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N($NH{_4}^+$ and $NO_3{^-}$) in forest soils from organic and two depths of mineral soil layers (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40cm depth) of Pinus densiflora stands located at two distinct areas (rural and industrial areas) in southern Korea was analyzed to investigate if there is any difference in ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N between these areas. We also evaluated potential N loss of the study sites using ${\delta}^{15}N$ of mineral N. Across the soil layers, the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ ranged from +8.9 to +24.8‰ in the rural area and from +4.4 to +13.8‰ in the industrial area. Soils from organic layer (+4.4‰) and mineral layer between 0 and 20 cm (+13.8‰) of industrial area showed significantly lower ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NH{_4}^+$ than those of rural area (+8.9 and +24.3‰, respectively), probably indicating the greater contribution of $^{15}N$-depleted $NH{_4}^+$ from atmospheric deposition to forest in the industrial area than in the rural area. Meanwhile, ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ was not different between the rural and industrial areas, probably because ${\delta}^{15}N$ of $NO_3{^-}$ is more likely to be altered by the N loss that causes $^{15}N$ enrichment of the remaining soil N pool. Compared with the ${\delta}^{15}N$ of soil mineral N reported by other studies (from -10.9 to +15.6‰ for $NH{_4}^+$ and -14.8 to +5.6‰ for $NO_3{^-}$), the ${\delta}^{15}N$ observed in our study was substantially high, suggesting that the study sites are more subject to the N loss. It was concluded that $NH{_4}^+$ rather than $NO_3{^-}$ can conserve the ${\delta}^{15}N$ signature of atmospheric N deposition in forest ecosystems.

Keywords

Acid rain;Forest soil;N deposition;N isotopic fractionation;Red pine;Tree ring age

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korean Government(MOEHRD)

References

  1. Bedard-Haughn, A., J.W. van Groenigenand, and C. van Kessel. 2003. Tracing $^15$N through landscapes: potential uses and precautions. J. Hydrol. 272:175-190 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00263-9
  2. Bukata, A.R., and T.K. Kyser. 2007. Carbon and nitrogen isotope variations in tree-rings as records of perturbations in regional carbon and nitrogen cycles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41:1331-1338 https://doi.org/10.1021/es061414g
  3. Choi, W.J. 2007. Development of a technique to reconstruct acid deposition records using stable isotope signatures in annual tree rings. Research report, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea
  4. Choi, W.J., S.X. Chang, and J.S. Bhatti. 2007. Drainage affects tree growth and C and N dynamics in a minerotrophic peatland. Ecology 88:443-453 https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[443:DATGAC]2.0.CO;2
  5. Feast, N.A., and P.E. Dennis. 1996. A comparison of methods for nitrogen isotope analysis of groundwater. Chem. Geol. 129: 167-171 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(95)00186-7
  6. Hauck, R.D. 1982. Nitrogen-isotope ratio analysis. p. 735-779. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  7. H$\ddot{o}$gberg, P. 1990. Forests losing large quantities of nitrogen have elevated $^{15}$N:$^{14}$N ratios. Oecologia 84:229-231 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00318276
  8. Rural Development Administration. 2000. Detailed Korea Soil Map, Suwon, Koreaecosystems. Can. J. For. Res. 13:747-766 https://doi.org/10.1139/x83-105
  9. Choi, W.J., H.M. Ro, and S.M. Lee. 2003. Natural 15N abundances of inorganic nitrogen in soil treated with fertilizer and compost under changing soil moisture regimes. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35:1289-1298 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00199-8
  10. Ministry of Environment of Korea. 2007. Annual Reports of Ambient Air Quality in Korea, Ministry of Environment, Seoul, Korea.
  11. Emmett, B.A., O.J. Kj$\phi$naas, P. Gundersen, C. Koopmans, A. Tietema, and D. Sleep. 1998. Natural abundances of $^{15}$N in forests across a nitrogen deposition gradient. Forest Ecol. Manag. 101:9-18 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00121-7
  12. Norby, R.J. 1998. Nitrogen deposition: A component of global change analyses. New Phytol. 139:189-200 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1998.00183.x
  13. Jung, K., G. Gebauer, M. Gehre, D. Hofmann, L. Wei$\beta$flog, and G. Sch$\ddot{u}$$\ddot{u}$rmann. 1997. Anthropogenic impacts on natural nitrogen isotope variations in Pinus sylvestris stands in an industrially polluted area. Environ. Pollut. 97:175-181 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00053-5
  14. Rural Development Administration. 2000. Detailed Korea Soil Map, Suwon, Korea
  15. Heaton, T.H.E. 1986. Isotopic studies of nitrogen pollution in the hydrosphere and atmosphere: a review. Chem. Geol. 59: 87-102 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(86)90046-X
  16. Choi, W.J., S.M. Lee, S.X. Chang, and H.M. Ro. 2005b. Variations of $\delta$$^1{3}$C and $\delta$$^{15}$N in Pinus densiflora tree-rings and their relationship to environmental changes in eastern Korea. Water Air Soil Poll. 164:173-187 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-005-2253-y
  17. Koba, K., N. Tokuchi, T. Yoshioka, E.A. Hobbie, and G. Iwatsubo. 1998. Natural abundance of nitrogen-15 in a forest soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62:778-787 https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200030034x
  18. Karamanos, R.E., and D.A. Rennie. 1981. The isotope composition of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil columns. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:316-321 https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500020018x
  19. Laverman, A.M., H.R. Zoomer, H.W. van Verseveld, and H.A. Verhoef. 2000. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in a coniferous forest soil. 2000. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31: 1661-1670 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00082-1
  20. Nadelhoffer, K.J., B.A. Emmett, P. Gundersen, O.J. Kj$\o$naas, C.J. Koopmans, C.J., P. Schleppi, A.Tietema, and R.F. Wright. 1999.Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature 398:145-148 https://doi.org/10.1038/18205
  21. Xiao, H.Y. and C.Q. Liu. 2002. Sources of nitrogen and sulfur in wet deposition at Guiyang, southwest China. Atmos. Environ. 36:5121-5130 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00649-0
  22. Poulson, S.R., C.P. Chamberlain, and A.J. Friedland. 1995. Nitrogen isotope variation of tree rings as a potential indicator of environmental change. Chem. Geol. 125:307?315 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(95)00097-6
  23. Vervaet, H., P. Boeckx, V. Unamuno, O. van Cleemput, and G. Hofman. 2002. Can $\delta$$^15$N profiles in forest soils predict NO$_3$$^-$ loss and net mineralization rates. Biol. Fert. Soils 36:143-150 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-002-0522-0
  24. Chang, S.X., and L.L. Handley. 2000. Site history affects soil and plant $^{15}$N natural abundances $({\delta}^{15}N)$ in forests of northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Funct. Ecol. 14:273-280 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.2000.00424.x
  25. H$\ddot{o}$gberg, P., and C. Johannisson. 1993. $^{15}$N abundances of forests is correlated with losses of nitrogen. Plant Soil 157:147-150 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00038758
  26. Choi, W.J., S.M. Lee, G.H. Han, K.S. Yoon, J.W. Jung, S.S. Lim, and J.H. Kwak. 2006. Available organic carbon controls nitrification and immobilization of ammonium in an acid loamtextured soil. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 49:28-32
  27. H$\ddot{o}$gberg, P. 1997. $^{15}$N natural abundance in soil-plant systems. New Phytol. 137:179-203 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00808.x
  28. Korea Industrial Complex Corporation. 2007. Status of National Industrial Complex, Seoul, Korea
  29. Choi, W.J., S.X. Chang, H.L. Allen, D.L. Kelting, and H.M. Ro. 2005a. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand. Forest Ecol. Manag. 213:90-101 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.016
  30. Kwak, J.H., S.S. Lim, H.J. Park, S.I. Lee, K.H. Lee, H.Y. Kim, S.X. Chang, S.M. Lee, H.M. Ro, and W.J. Choi. 2009. Relating tree ring chemistry of Pinus densiflor to precipitation acidity in an industrial area of South Korea. Water Air Soil Pollut. (DOI 10.1007/s11270-008-9862-1) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9862-1
  31. Keeney, D.R. and D.W. Nelson. 1982. Nitrogen-inorganic forms. P.643-698. In A.L. Page et al. (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2:Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  32. Lee, S.M., W.J. Choi, S.I. Yun, Y.D. Choi, Y.D., H.M. Ro, and J.W. Park. 2002. Evaluation of fate of $NH_{4}^{+}$ of condensed molasses solubles (CMS) in soil using by $^{15}N$-tracer method. Koran J. Soil Sci. Fert. 35:69-76