Regional-Scale Evaluation of Groundwater Susceptibility to Nitrate Contamination Based on Soil Survey Information

토양정보를 이용한 광역 지하수의 질산태 질소 오염 민감도 분포 분석

  • 한광현 (충북대학교 응용생명환경학부)
  • Received : 2009.01.02
  • Accepted : 2009.02.06
  • Published : 2009.02.28


Susceptibility assessment of groundwater contamination is a useful tool for many aspects of regional and local groundwater resources planning and management. It can be used to direct regulatory, monitoring, educational, and policy-making efforts to highly vulnerable areas. In this study, a semi process-based was proposed to evaluate relative susceptibilities to groundwater contamination by nitrate on a regional scale. Numerical simulation based on data from each soil series was done to model water flow within soil profiles that were related to groundwater contamination by nitrate. Relative vulnerability indices for each soil series were produced by manipulation of amount of leaching flux, amount of average water storage in a soil profile, and amount of average water storage change. These indices were designed to convey the trend of leaching flux and to maximize spatial resolution. The resulting vulnerability distribution map was used to locate highly vulnerable sites easily with an appropriate grouping the indices, and was then compared with those from groundwater nitrate concentrations monitored. An excellent agreement was obtained across nitrate concentrations from the highly vulnerable regions and those from the low to stable regions.


Water movement;Simulation;Soil series;Pedotransfer function;Geographical information system


  1. ASI (Agricultural Sciences Institute). 1976. Detailed Soil Map: Je Ju Do. ASI, Rural Development Administration. Suwon,Korea
  2. ASI (Agricultural Sciences Institute). 1988. Phosphorus. p. 73-93. In Soil Chemical Analysis. ASI, Rural Development Administration. Suwon,Korea.
  3. Comly, H.H. 1945. Cyanosis in infants caused by nitrate in well water. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 129:112-116
  4. Evans, A.E. and D.R. Maidment. 1995. A Spatial and Statistical Assessment of the Vulnerability of Texas Groundwater to Nitrate Contamination. Online report 95-4. Center for Researchin Water Resources, University of Texas, Austin, Texas
  5. Riggle, M.A, and R.R. Schmit. 1991. The Wisconsin groundwater contamination susceptibility map. J. Urban Regional Inf. Syst. Assoc. 3:85-88
  6. Rundquist, D.C., D.A. Rodekohr, A.J. Peters, R.L. Ehrman, L. Di, and G. Murray. 1991. Statewide groundwater-vulnerability assessment in Nebraska using the DRASTIC/GIS model. GeocartoInt. 2:51-58
  7. Song, K.C. 1989. Andic Properties of Major Soils in ChejuIsland (In Korean). Ph. D. Thesis, Seoul National Univ., Dep. of Agricultural Chemistry. Seoul, Korea
  8. Yoon, J.S. and S.W. Park. 1994. Local characteristics of groundwate rresources of Cheju Island and seasonal variation in groundwater table (InKorean). In Proc. of the 10th. National Symposium on Water Resources and Environment of ChejuIsland. Cheju, Korea. 2-3 December 1994. Society for Cheju Studies, Cheju, Korea
  9. Richards, R., D. Baker, N. Creamer, J. Kramer, D. Ewing, B. Merryfield, and L. Wallrabenstein. 1996. Wellwaterquality, wellvulnerability, and agricultural contamination in the midwestern United States. J. Environ. Qual. 25:389-402
  10. Cohen, S., S. Creeger, R. Carel, and C. Enfield. 1984. Potential for pesticide contamination of groundwater resulting from agricultural uses. In R. Krueger and J. Seiber (Ed.) Treatment and Disposal of Pesticide Waste. ACS Symposium Series No. 259. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C
  11. Song, K.C. 1982. Chemical Characteristics of Soils in JejuIsland (InKorean). M.S. Thesis, Seoul National Univ., Dep. of Agricultural Chemistry. Seoul, Korea.
  12. van Genuchten, M.Th. 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Am. J. 44:892-898
  13. Mualem, Y. 1976. A new model predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porus media. Water Resour. Res. 12:513-522
  14. Preussman, R. and B.W. Stewart. 1984. N-nitroso. carcinogens. p.643-828 In C.E. Searle (ed.) Chemical Carcinogens. ACS Monographs 182. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. A Review of Methods for Assessing Aquifer Sensitivity and Ground Water Vulnerability to Pesticide Contamination. Office of Water (WH-550). 813-R-93-002. USEPA, Washington, DC.
  16. Lee, C.B. 1994. Groundwater resources of Korea and development strategies (In Korean). In Proc. of the Symposium on Groundwater Development and Agricultural Water Resources. Seoul, Korea. 30 June 1994. Rural Development Corporation, Uiwang, Korea
  17. Vanclooster, M., P. Viaene, J. Diels, and K. Christianens. 1994. WAVE Reference and User's Manual (Release 2.0). Institute for Land and Water Management, Katholieke Universeit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  18. Day, P.R. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. p.545-567. In C.A. Black, D.D. Evans, L.E. Ensminger, J.L. White, F.E. Clark, and R.C. Dinauer (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. Physical and Mineralogical Properties, Including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison, WI
  19. Jury, W.A., W.R. Gardner, and W.H. Gardner. 1991. Water flow in unsaturated soil. p. 87-112. In Soil Physics 5th. Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  20. Olsen, S.R. and L.E. Sommers. 1982. Phosphorus. p. 403-430. In A.L. Page et al. (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison,WI.
  21. Aller, L., T. Bennett, J. Lehr, R. Petty, and G. Hackett. 1987. DRASTIC : A Standardized System for Evaluating Ground Water Pollution Potential Using Hydrogeologic Settings. EPA-600/ 2-87-035. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Oklahoma
  22. Bray, R.H. and L.T. Kurtz. 1945. Determination of total, organic, and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 59:39-45
  23. Navulur, K.C.S. and B.A. Engel. 1996. Predicting spatial distribution of vulnerability of Indiana state aquifer systems to nitrate leaching usinga GIS. In Proc. of the Third International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, NM. 23-25 Jan. 1996. U.S. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, SantaBarbara, CA
  24. Thomas, G.W. 1992.. Assessment of the potential of land areas in Kentucky for groundwater contamination from use of fertilizer nitrogen, agricultural chemicals, and animal manure. p. 25-34. In J.L. Taraba (ed.) Agricultural Chemical Use Impacts on Kentucky Groundwater Resources, 1991 Status Report. College of Agriculture, Kentucky Geological Survey, Institute for Mining and Minerals Research, University of Kentucky
  25. Yoo, S.H. and Y.S. Jung 1999. Soil and water contamination issues in the Republic of Korea. In I.K. Han (Ed.) Proc. of the International Symposium on Ecosystem management in Northest Asia. Dalian, China. 14-17 October 1999. Chinese Association of Science, Beijing, China, and Korean Associationof Scienceand Technology, Seoul, Korea
  26. Domagalski, J. and N. Dubrovsky. 1992. Pesticide residues in ground water of the San Joaquin valley, California. J. Hydrol. 130:299-338
  27. Regan, J.J. 1990. DRASTIC: Ground water pollution potential mapping Arizona counties using a PC-based GIS. p.232-240. In Proc. of the Third Forest Service Romote Sensing Applications Conference, Tucson, AZ. 9-13 Apr. 1990. Am. Soc. for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD
  28. Vinten, A.J.A. and K.A. Smith. 1993. Nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. p. 39-74. In T.P. Burt, A.L. heathwaite and S.T. Trudgill (ed.) Nitrate: Process, Patterns and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK
  29. Walkley, A. 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci. 63:251-263
  30. Pettyjohn, W.A., M. Savoca, and D. Self. 1991. Regional Assessment of Aquifer Vulnerability and Sensitivity in the conterminous UnitedStates, EPA/600/2-91/043. Roberst S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, OK
  31. Green, A.J. 1981. Particle-size analysis. p. 4-29. In J.A. Mckeague (Ed.) Manual on Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Canadian Society of Soil Science, Ottawa
  32. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Predicting Relative Contamination Potential under Conditions of Uncertainty. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.