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Effects of Microwave Irradiation on the Composition of Swine Manure and Crystallization of MAP

극초단파 조사가 돈분뇨의 성상과 MAP 결정화 반응에 미치는 영향

  • Cho, Joon-Hee (College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Ra, Chang-Six (College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University)
  • 조준희 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학) ;
  • 라창식 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학)
  • Received : 2008.12.10
  • Accepted : 2009.02.12
  • Published : 2009.02.01

Abstract

Composition changes of swine manure and the effects on MAP ($MgNH_4PO_46H_2O$) crystallization by microwave irradiation were examined. The concentration of ${PO_4}^{3-}$ was increased within a fixed period of time and then decreased, but $NH_4$-N was reduced continuously during microwave irradiation. Concentration of ${PO_4}^{3-}$ was started to reduce just from the point of foam formation during microwave irradiation, and the temperature at that time was always $49^{\circ}C$ irrespectively to microwave irradiation rate. Inorganic carbon was reduced with microwave irradiation, but soluble organic carbon (TOCs) was increased proportionally. Crystallization rate under conditions of non-microwave irradiation, irradiation up to $93^{\circ}C$ and $48^{\circ}C$ was 87.8%, 87.3% and 98.5%, respectively, showing 10% enhancement when irradiated up to $48^{\circ}C$. However, removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen was proportional to the microwave irradiation rate or duration, obtaining 2.5%, 4.5% and 10.2%, respectively. Based on these results, it would be a useful strategy to irradiate microwave up to $49^{\circ}C$ to enhance MAP crystallization rate by changing the ionic pattern of nutrients in the manure. Meanwhile, provision of enough microwave irradiation rate might be needed to achieve high $NH_4$-N removal.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국학술진흥재단

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Cited by

  1. Magnesium ammonium phosphate formation, recovery and its application as valuable resources: a review vol.88, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.3936