Effects of Microwave Irradiation on the Composition of Swine Manure and Crystallization of MAP

극초단파 조사가 돈분뇨의 성상과 MAP 결정화 반응에 미치는 영향

  • Cho, Joon-Hee (College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Ra, Chang-Six (College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University)
  • 조준희 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학) ;
  • 라창식 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학)
  • Received : 2008.12.10
  • Accepted : 2009.02.12
  • Published : 2009.02.01


Composition changes of swine manure and the effects on MAP ($MgNH_4PO_46H_2O$) crystallization by microwave irradiation were examined. The concentration of ${PO_4}^{3-}$ was increased within a fixed period of time and then decreased, but $NH_4$-N was reduced continuously during microwave irradiation. Concentration of ${PO_4}^{3-}$ was started to reduce just from the point of foam formation during microwave irradiation, and the temperature at that time was always $49^{\circ}C$ irrespectively to microwave irradiation rate. Inorganic carbon was reduced with microwave irradiation, but soluble organic carbon (TOCs) was increased proportionally. Crystallization rate under conditions of non-microwave irradiation, irradiation up to $93^{\circ}C$ and $48^{\circ}C$ was 87.8%, 87.3% and 98.5%, respectively, showing 10% enhancement when irradiated up to $48^{\circ}C$. However, removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen was proportional to the microwave irradiation rate or duration, obtaining 2.5%, 4.5% and 10.2%, respectively. Based on these results, it would be a useful strategy to irradiate microwave up to $49^{\circ}C$ to enhance MAP crystallization rate by changing the ionic pattern of nutrients in the manure. Meanwhile, provision of enough microwave irradiation rate might be needed to achieve high $NH_4$-N removal.


Supported by : 한국학술진흥재단


  1. 박성현, 장성호, 정병길. 2006. 마이크로파 조사 강도에 따른 하수슬러지 전처리 특성. 한국폐기물학회. 23(1):65-72.
  2. 조원실, 윤성준, 라창식. 2003. Struvite 결정화에 의한 축산폐수로부터 질소․인 자원의 재생. 동물자원과학회지, 45(5): 875-884.
  3. Driver, J., Lijmbach, D. and Steen, I. 1999. Why recover phosphorus for recycling and how?. Environ. Technol. 20:697-708.
  4. Doyle, J. D. and Parsons, S. A. 2002, Struvite formation, control and recovery, Water research, 36(16):3925-3940.
  5. Le Corre, K. S., Valsami-Jones, E., Hobbs, P. and Parsons, S. A. 2005. Impact of calcium on struvite crystal size, shape and purity. J. Crystal Growth. 283:514-522.
  6. Li, L., Yuan, S., Chen, J., Xu, Zuqun. and Lu, X. 2008. Removal of amonia nitrogen in wastewater by microwave radiation. J. Hazardous materials. doi:10.1016/2008.04.053.
  7. Lo, S. L., Chen, C. L., Chiueh, P. T., Kuan, W. H. and Hsieh, C. H. 2007. The assistance of microwave process in sludge stabilization with sodium sulfide and sodium phosphate. J. Hazardous materials. 147:930-937.
  8. Munch, E. V. and Barr, K. 2001. Controlled struvite crystalisation for removing phosphorus from anaerobic digester sidestreams. Water. Research, 35(1):151-159.
  9. Qureshi, A., Lo, K.V. and Liao, P. H. 2008. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure. J. Environmental Science and health, 43(4):350-357.
  10. Stratful, I., Scrimshaw, M. D. and Lester, J. N. 2001. Conditions influencing the precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate. Water. Research, 35(17):4191-4199.
  11. Suzuki, K., Tanaka, Y., Kuroda, D. H. and Fukumoto, Y. 2005. Recovery of phosphorous from swine wastewater through crystallization. Bioresource Technology, 96:1544-1550.

Cited by

  1. Magnesium ammonium phosphate formation, recovery and its application as valuable resources: a review vol.88, pp.2, 2012,