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Evaluation of Probiotics as an Alternative to Antibiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Occurrence of Diarrhea and Immune Response in Weaning Pigs

항생제 대체제로서 생균제가 이유자돈의 성장능력 및 영양소 이용률, 설사 빈도, 면역 반응에 미치는 영향

  • Jang, Young-Dal (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Oh, Hee-Kyung (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Piao, Long-Guo (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, Hyun-Bong (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yun, Jin-Hyeon (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Yoo-Yong (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • 장영달 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 오희경 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 박용국 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 최현봉 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 윤진현 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 김유용 (서울대학교 농업생명과학대학 농생명공학부, 서울대학교 농업생명과학연구원)
  • Received : 2008.12.24
  • Accepted : 2009.02.19
  • Published : 2009.02.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotics supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, occurrence of diarrhea and immune response in weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) NC (basal diet), 2) PC (basal diet + 0.12% avilamycin) and 3) A (basal diet + 0.2% Aspergillus oryzae), 4) B (basal diet + 0.2% Lactobacillus casei), 5) C (basal diet + 0.2% Bacillus subtilis), 6) D (basal diet + 0.2% Lactobacillus crispatus). A total of 120 pigs ($7.16\pm0.01$ kg average body weight, weaned at $23\pm3$days of age) were assigned to 6 treatments, 5 replicates and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. During the whole experimental period, body weight (P<0.01), average daily gain (ADG; P<0.01), and average daily feed intake (ADFI; P<0.05) of treatment PC were higher than other treatments. However, the probiotics treatments tended to increase ADG and G:F ratio compared to treatment NC. The G:F ratio in treatment A (Aspergillus oryzae) was similar to treatment PC during the whole experimental period (P<0.05). The supplementation of probiotics in the diet of weaning pig did not change nutrient digestibility (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash) and nitrogen retention of weaning pigs. In blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, treatment B had lower value than other treatments at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05). Treatments PC and C tended to decrease diarrhea score than other treatments (P=0.18). At 3h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, treatments NC and PC had higher count of $CD^{4+}$ T-cells than probiotics treatments, and treatment C showed the lowest value (P<0.01). There were no differences on count of $CD^{8+}$ T-cells and $CD^{4+}:CD^{8+}$ ratio among all treatments (P>0.10). These results suggest that the dietary probiotics are likely able to improve the growth performance, occurrence of diarrhea and immune response although they do not have similar effects like antibiotics in weaning pigs.

본 실험은 이유자돈 120두를 이용하여 생균제의 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장 능력, 영양소 소화율, 혈중 요소태 질소, 설사 빈도, 면역 반응에 미치는 영향에 대해 조사하였다. 이유자돈 사료에 항생제 대체제인 생균제의 첨가는 전 사양 기간에 걸쳐 사양 성적이 항생제 첨가구(PC)에 비해 유의적으로 낮게 나타났다. 항생제 첨가구(PC)를 제외하고 비교하였을 때에는 비록 유의적인 차이는 발생하지 않았지만 생균제 첨가구가 항생제 무첨가구(NC)에 비해 일당증체량, 사료효율에서 높은 경향을 보였으며, 이는 항생제 첨가 효과에는 미치지 못하지만 항생제 대체제로서 그 가능성을 보인 것이라고 하겠다. 특히 생균제 A 첨가구는 0~5 주차 사료 효율(P<0.05)에서 항생제 첨가구(PC)와 비슷한 성적을 나타내어, 항생제 대체제로서 이유자돈의 성장을 개선 시킬 가능성이 가장 높다고 하겠다. 본 실험에서는 5주동안 이유자돈의 사료에 생균제를 첨가하여 사양성적을 보았는데, 생균제의 급여기간을 좀 더 늘리면 생균제의 처리효과가 더욱 뚜렷하게 나타날 수도 있으리라 생각된다. 이유자돈 사료에 생균제의 첨가가 건물, 조단백질, 조지방, 조회분 소화율에 어떠한 영향도 미치지 않았으며(P>0.10), 질소 축적율은 생균제 첨가구에서 항생제 첨가구(PC)에 비해 높게 나타났으나 일관된 효과를 보이지는 않았다. 혈중 요소태 질소 농도에서는 2주차와 4주차에서 유의적인 차이가 나타났다(P<0.05). 또한 생균제 B 첨가구가 다른 처리구에 비해 혈중 요소태 질소 농도가 가장 낮게 나타났다. 설사 발생 빈도 측정 결과, 항생제 첨가구(PC)에서 설사 발생 빈도가 유의적으로 낮게 나타났으며, 생균제 C 첨가구에서 다음으로 낮게 나타났다(P=0.18). 면역 반응 실험 결과, $CD^{4+}$ T-cell 수의 경우 생균제 C 첨가구에서 다른 처리구에 비해 가장 낮게 나타났으며(P<0.01), $CD^{8+}$ T-cell 수와 $CD^{4+}:CD^{8+}$ 비율의 경우에는 모든 처리구에서 유의적인 차이가 발생하지 않았다(P>0.10). 결론적으로 이유자돈사료 내 생균제의 첨가가 이유자돈의 성장 능력, 질소축적율, 혈중 요소태 질소, 설사 빈도, 및 면역 능력에 일정한 개선 효과를 갖고 있지만, 항생제 첨가 효과에는 미치지 못한다고 하겠다. 본 실험을 통해 이유자돈 사료에 생균제의 첨가는 항생제 대체제로서 일정 부분 개선효과가 있는 것으로 사료된다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림수산식품부

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