DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Organic Acids on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Pigs

다양한 유기산제들의 급여가 이유자돈의 성장과 영양소 소화율에 미치는 효과

  • Joo, Ji-Whan (Department of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Yang, YuXin (Department of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Choi, Jae-Yong (Department of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Choi, Soon-Chon (Department of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Cho, Won-Tak (Genebiotech. Co.) ;
  • Chae, Byung-Jo (Department of Animal Resources Science, Kangwon National University)
  • 주지환 (강원대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • ;
  • 최재용 (강원대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 최순천 (강원대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 조원탁 ((주) 진바이오텍) ;
  • 채병조 (강원대학교 동물자원과학과)
  • Received : 2008.11.11
  • Accepted : 2009.02.18
  • Published : 2009.02.01

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of different organic acids on growth performance and apparent nutrients digestibility in weaned pigs. In both the experiments, 180 pigs were assigned to four treatments with three replicates comprising of 15 pigs in each. Formic acid, ammonium-formate, lactic acid, and acid mixture were added to diets at 0.50% (Exp. 1) and 0.30% (Exp. 2) as dietary treatments for 5 and 6 wk feeding trial, respectively. The acid mixture was prepared by mixing formic acid and lactic acid at 50:50 ratios. To investigate the apparent ileal amino acids digestibility, twelve pigs (3 per treatment) were used and fitted with simple ileo-caecal T-cannula for both experiments. In Exp.1, growth performance was comparable (P>0.05) among pigs fed different organic acids, while acid mixture had higher (P<0.05) weight gain than that of lactic acid in Exp.2. The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was highest (P<0.05) in pigs fed acid mixture and lowest (P<0.05) in pigs fed formic acid diets in both experiments. These results indicated that supplementation with acid mixture (formic acid and lactic acid) improved performance and ileal amino acid digestibility in weaned pigs.

References

  1. AOAC. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition. Arlington, VA.
  2. Canibe, N., Steien, S. H., Overland, M. and Jensen, B. B. 2001. Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity, microbiota, and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets, and on gastric alterations. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2123-2133. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7982123x
  3. Eidelsburger, U. 2001. Feeding short-chain organic acids to pigs. In: Garnsworthy, P. C., Wiseman, J. (Eds). Recent developments in pig nutrition 3. Nottingham University Press, UK, pp. 107-119.
  4. Fenton, T. W. and Fenton, M. 1979. An improved method for chromic oxide determination in feed and feces. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 59:631-634. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas79-081
  5. Franco, L. D., Fondevila, M., Lobera, M. B. and Castrillo, C. 2005. Effect of combinations of organic acids in weaned pig diets on microbial species of digestive tract contents and their response on digestibility. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 89: 88-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00553.x
  6. Gabert, V. M., Sauer, W. C., Schmitz, M., Ahrens, F. and Mosenthin, R. 1995. The effect of formic acid and buffering capacity on the ileal digestibilities of amino acids and bacterial populations and metabolites in the small intestine of weanling pigs fed semipurifled fish meal diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:615-623. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas95-091
  7. Geary, T. M., Brooks P. H., Beal, J. D. and Campbell, A. 1999. Effect on weaner pig performance and diet microbiology of feeding a liquid diet acidified to pH 4 with either lactic acid or through fermentation with Pediococcus acidilacti. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79:633-640. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(19990315)79:4<633::AID-JSFA231>3.0.CO;2-L
  8. Guggenbuhl, P., Seon, A., Pinon Quintana, A. and Simoes Nunes, C. 2007. Effects of dietary supplementation with benzoic acid ($VevoVitall{\circleR}$) on the zootechnical performance, the gastrointestinal microflora and the ileal digestibility of the young pig. Livest. Sci. 108:218-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.068
  9. Hahn, T.-W., Lohakare, J. D., Lee, S. L., Moon, W. K. and Chae, B. J. 2006. Effects of supplementation of ${\ss}glucans$ on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1422-1428. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8461422x
  10. Hansen, C. F., Riis, A. L., Bresson, S., Hojbjerg, O. and Jensen, B. B. 2007. Feeding organic acids enhances the barrier function against pathogenic bacteria of the piglet stomach. Livest. Sci. 108:206-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.059
  11. Jensen, B. B. 1998. The impact of feed additives on the microbial ecology of the gut in young pigs. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 7:45-64.
  12. Kemme, P. A., Jongbloed, A. W., Mroz, Z., Kogut, J. and Beynen, A. C. 1999. Digestibility of nutrients in growing-finishing pigs is affected by Aspergillus niger phytase, phytate and lactic acid levels. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids. Livest. Prod. Sci. 58:107-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(98)00203-6
  13. Kirchgessner, M., Paulicks, B. R. and Roth, F. X. 1997. Effects of supplementations of diformate complexes (FormiTMLHS) on growth and carcass performance of piglets and fattening pigs in response to application time. Agribiol. Res. 50:1-10.
  14. Knarreborg, A., Miquel, N., Granli, T. and Jensen, B. B. 2002. Establishment and application of an in vitro methodology to study the effects of organic acids on coliform and lactic acid bacteria in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 99:131-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00069-X
  15. Kommera, S. K., Mateo, R. D., Neher, F. J. and Kim, S. W. 2006. Phytobiotics and organic acids as potential alternatives to the use of antibiotics in nursery pig diets. Asian‐Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1784-1789.
  16. Moore, S. 1963. On the determination of cystine as cysteic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 238:235-237.
  17. Mosenthin, R., Sauer, W. C., Ahrens, F., de Lange, C. F. M. and Bornholdt, U. 1992. Effect of dietary supplements of propionic acid, siliceous earth or a combination of these on the energy, protein and amino acid digestibilities and concentrations of microbial metabolites in the digestive tract of growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 37:245-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(92)90008-T
  18. Mroz, Z., Jongbloed, A. W., Partanen, K. H., Vreman, K., Kemme, P. A. and Kogut, J. 2000. The effects of calcium benzoate in diets with or without organic acids on dietary buffering capacity, apparent digestibility, retention of nutrients, and manure characteristics in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2622-2632. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.78102622x
  19. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. National Research Council. 10th Edition. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
  20. Omogbenigun, F. O., Nyachoti, C. M. and Slominski, B. A. 2003. The effect of supplementing microbial phytase and organic acids to a corn-soybean based diet fed to early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1806-1813. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8171806x
  21. Overland, M., Kjos, N. P., Borg, M. and Sorum, H. 2007. Organic acids in diets for entire male pigs. Livest. Sci. 109:170-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.02.002
  22. Partanen, K., Jalava, T. and Valaja, J. 2007. Effects of a dietary organic acid mixture and of dietary fibre levels on ileal and faecal nutrient apparent digestibility, bacterial nitrogen flow, microbial metabolite concentrations and rate of passage in the digestive tract of pigs. Anim. 1:389-401. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107657838
  23. Partanen, K., Jalava, T., Valaja, J., Perttilä, S., Siljander Rasi, H. and Lindeberg, H. 2001. Effect of dietary carbadox or formic acid and fibre level on ileal and faecal nutrient digestibility and microbial metabolite concentrations in ileal digesta of the pig. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 93:137-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00288-7
  24. Partanen, K., Siljander-Rasi, H., Alaviuhkola, T., Suomi, K. and Fossi, M. 2002. Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed medium‐or high-fibre diets supplemented with avilamycin, formic acid or formic acid-sorbate blend. Livest. Prod. Sci. 73:139-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00255-X
  25. Partanen, K. H. and Mroz, Z. 1999. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets. Nutr. Res. Rev. 12:1-30. https://doi.org/10.1079/095442299108728901
  26. Partanen, K. H. 2001. Organic acids-their efficacy and modes of action in pigs. In: Piva, A., Bach-Knudsen, K. E., Lindberg, J. E. (Eds). Gut environment of pigs. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp. 201-217.
  27. Paulicks, B. R., Roth, F. X. and Kirchgessner, M. 1996. Dose effects of potassium diformate (FormiTMLHS) on the performance of growing piglets. Agribiol. Res. 49:318-326.
  28. Radecki, S. V., Juhl, M. R. and Miller, E. R. 1988. Fumaric and citric acids as feed additives in starter pig diets: effect on performance and nutrient balance. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2598-2605. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1988.66102598x
  29. Risley, C. R., Kornegay, E. T., Lindemann, M. D., Wood, C. M. and Eigel, W. N. 1992. Effect of feeding organic acids on selected intestinal content measurements at varying times postweaning in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 70:196-206. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.701196x
  30. Skirrow, S. Z., Buddle, J. R., Mercy, A. R., Madec, F. and Nicholls, R. R. 1997. Epidemiological studies of pig diseases: 2. Post-weaning diarrhea and performance in Western Australian pigs. Aust. Vet. J. 75:282-288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb10098.x
  31. Tsiloyiannis, V. K., Kyriakis, S. C., Vlemmas, J. and Sarris, K. 2001. The effect of organic acids on the control of porcine post-weaning diarrhea. Res. Vet. Sci. 70:287- 293. https://doi.org/10.1053/rvsc.2001.0476
  32. Walker, W. R., Morgan, G. L. and Maxwell D. J. 1986. Ileal cannulation in baby pigs with a simple T-cannula. J. Anim. Sci. 62:407-411.
  33. Walsh, M. C., Sholly, D. M., Hinson, R. B., Trapp, S. A., Sutton, A. L., Radcliffe, J. S., Smith, J. W. II and Richert, B. T. 2007. Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:459-467. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-630

Cited by

  1. Characterization and Evaluation of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Gene Effect on Pork Quality Traits in Pigs vol.54, pp.1, 2012, https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.1