Characteristics of Vocalizations of Laying Hen Related with Space in Battery Cage

케이지 내 사육 공간의 차이에 따른 산란계의 음성 특성

  • Son, Seung-Hun (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Shin, Ji-Hye (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kim, Min-Jin (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kang, Jeong-Hoon (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Rhim, Shin-Jae (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Paik, In-Kee (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • 손승훈 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 신지혜 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 김민진 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 강정훈 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 임신재 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 백인기 (중앙대학교 동물자원과학과)
  • Received : 2009.07.02
  • Accepted : 2009.08.28
  • Published : 2009.10.01


This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of vocalization of laying hen related with space in battery cage. The size of cages were classified into control (0.30 m ${\times}$ 0.14 m ${\times}$ 0.55 m, length ${\times}$ width ${\times}$ height), small (0.21 m ${\times}$ 0.14 m ${\times}$ 0.55 m) and large (0.30 m ${\times}$ 0.30 m ${\times}$ 0.55 m) size. Vocalization of 16 individuals of laying hen in each group of Hy-Line Brown (80 week old) were recorded 3 hours per day (10:00am~11:00am, 3:00pm~4:00pm and 7:00pm~8:00pm) using digital recorder and microphone during October 2008 and February 2009. Characteristics of frequency, intensity and duration of vocalization were analyzed by GLM (general linear model) and Duncan's multi-test. There were differences in basic and maximum frequency, and intensity based on analysis of spectrogram and spectrum among different cage sizes. Vocalization of laying hen would be one of the indicators to understand the stress caused by rearing space in batter cage.


Battery cage;Laying hen;Space;Vocalization


Supported by : 한국학술진흥재단


  1. Appleby, M. C. and Hughes, B. O. 1991. Welfare of laying hens in cages and alternative systems: environmental, physical and behavioural aspects. World’s Poultry Sci. J. 47, 109-128.
  2. Beerda, B., Schilder, M. B. H., Bernadina, W., van Hooff, A. R. A. M., de Vries, H. W. and Mol, J. A. 1999. Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. II. Hormonal and immunological responses. Physiol. Behav. 66, 243-254.
  3. Cooper, J. J. and Albentosa, M. J. 2004. Social space for laying hens. In Welfare of the laying hens. G. C. Perry (Ed). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, U.K., pp. 191-202.
  4. Deaton, J. W., Reece, F. N. and Lott, B. D. 1985. Effect of summer cyclic temperature versus moderate temperate on laying hen performance. Poultry Sci. 65, 1649-1651.
  5. DEFRA (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK). 2002. Code of recommendations for the welfare of livestock: laying hens. DEFRA Publication, London, U.K.
  6. Groot, J., Ruis, M. A. W., Scholten, J. W., Koolhaas, J. M. and Boersma, W. J. A. 2001. Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs. Physiol. Behav. 73, 145-158.
  7. Keeling, L. J. 1994. Inter-bird distances and behavioural priorities in laying hens: the effect of spatial restriction. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 39, 131-140.
  8. Leone, E. H. and Estevez, I. 2008. Use of space in the domestic fowl: separating the effects of enclosure size, group size and density. Anim. Behav. 76, 1673-1682.
  9. Manteuffel, G., Puppe, B. and Schon, P. C. 2004. Vocalization of farm animals as a measure of welfare. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 88, 163-182.
  10. Perry, G. C. 2004. Welfare of the laying hen: poultry science symposium series volume twenty-seven. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, U.K.
  11. SPSS Institute. 1999. SPSS Base 9.0 User’s Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, U.S.A.
  12. Warburton, K. and Lazarus, J. 1991. Tendency distance models of social cohesion in animal group. J. Theor. Biol. 150, 473-488.
  13. Wathes, C. M., Jones, C. D. R. and Webster, A. J. F. 1983. Ventilation, air hygiene and animal health. Vet. Rec. 113, 554-559.
  14. Webster, A. B. and Hurnik, J. F. 1994. Synchronization of behavior among laying hens in battery cages. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 63, 45-48.
  15. 구중회, 이승혜, 임연미, 김소남, 허용. 2007. 비육돈 및 산란계 밀집사육과 스트레스 대응 호르몬의 상관성에 대한 연구. J. Altern. Anim. Exper. 1, 55-59.
  16. 임신재, 김민진, 이주영, 김나라, 강정훈. 2008. 모돈의 인공수정 후 시기별 발성음의 특성. 한국동물자원과학회지 50, 401-406.
  17. 전중환, 연성찬, 하정기, 이승주, 장홍희. 2005. 산란계의 열환경별 특이음에 대한 음성학적 분석. 한국동물자원과학회지 47, 697-702.