DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The physical simulation of thunderstorm downbursts using an impinging jet

  • McConville, A.C. (Arup) ;
  • Sterling, M. (School of Civil Engineering, The University of Birmingham) ;
  • Baker, C.J. (School of Civil Engineering, The University of Birmingham)
  • Received : 2008.06.05
  • Accepted : 2009.01.16
  • Published : 2009.03.25

Abstract

This paper outlines the results of a physical simulation (at a 1:700 - 1:1000 geometric scale) of a thunderstorm downburst. Three different methods are examined in order to generate the time dependent nature of a downburst: directly controlling the fans and via two different types of opening apertures. Similarities are shown to exist between each method, although the results obtained from one approach are favoured since they appear to be independent of the downdraft velocity. Significant run-to-run variations between each experiment are discovered and in general it is found beneficial to interpret the results in terms of 10 run ensemble averages. An attempt to simulate a translating downburst is also undertaken and the results are shown to compare favourably with full-scale data.

References

  1. Byers, H.R. (1959), General Meteorology, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  2. Chay, M.T., Albermani, F. and Wilson, R. (2006), "Numerical and analytical simulation of downdraft wind loads", Eng. Struct., 28(2), 240-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.07.007
  3. Chay, M.T. and Albermani, F. (2000), "Dynamic response of a SDOF system subjected to a simulated downdraft", Proc. of 6th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Wind Engineering (APCWE-VI), Seoul, Korea, 12-14 September 2005, 1562- 1584.
  4. Chay, M.T. and Letchford, C.W. (2002), "Pressure distributions on a cube in a simulated thunderstorm downdraft, Part A: stationary downdraft observations", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 90(7), 711-732. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(02)00158-7
  5. Durañona, V., Sterling, M. and Baker, C.J. (2006), "An analysis of extreme non-synoptic winds", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 95, 1007-1027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2007.01.014
  6. Fujita, T.T. (1985), "The Downburst", Reports of Projects NIMROD and JAWS, University of Chicago.
  7. Holmes, J.D. (1992), "Physical modelling of thunderstorm downdrafts by wind tunnel jet", Second AWES Workshop, Healesville, Victoria, 29-32.
  8. Holmes, J.D. and Oliver, S.E. (2000), "An empirical model of a downdraft", Eng. Struct., 22(9), 638-645. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(99)00015-2
  9. Holmes, J.D., Hangan, H.M., Schroeder, J.L., Letchford, C.W. and Orwig, K.D. (2008), "A forensic study of the Lubbock-Reese downdraft of 2002", Wind Struct., 11, 137-152. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2008.11.2.137
  10. Hoxey, R.P., Robertson, A., Toy, N., Parke, G.A.R. and Disney, P. (2003), "Design of an experimental arrangement to study wind loads on transmission towers due to downdrafts", Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on Fluid Structure Interaction, Cadiz, Spain, 24-26 June 2003, 395-404.
  11. Kim, J. and Hangan, H. (2007), "Numerical simulations of impinging jets with application to downdrafts", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 95, 279-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2006.07.002
  12. Letchford, C.W. and Chay, M.T. (2002), "Pressure distributions on a cube in a simulated thunderstorm downdraft, Part B: moving downdraft observations", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 90(7), 733-753. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(02)00163-0
  13. Letchford, C.W., Mans, C. and Chay, M.T. (2002), "Thunderstorms—their importance in wind engineering (a case for the next generation wind tunnel)", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 90(12-15), 1415-1433. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(02)00262-3
  14. Lin, W.E. and Savory, E. (2006), "Large-scale quasi-steady modelling of a downdraft outflow using a slot jet", Wind Struct., 9(6), 419-440. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2006.9.6.419
  15. Lin, W.E., Orf, L.G., Savory, E. and Novacco, C. (2007), "Proposed large-scale modelling of the transient features of a downdraft outflow", Wind Struct., 10(4), 315-346. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2007.10.4.315
  16. Mason, M. and Wood, G. (2005), "Influence of jet inclination on structural loading in an experimentally simulated microburst", 6th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Wind Engineering (APCWE-VI), Seoul, Korea, 12-14 September 2005, 2758-2770.
  17. Mason, M., Letchford, C. W. and James, D.L. (2005), "Pulsed wall jet simulation of a stationary thunderstorm downdraft, Part A: Physical structure and flow field characterization", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 93(7), 557-580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2005.05.006
  18. McConville, A.C. (2008), "Physical simulation of thunderstorm downdrafts", PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.
  19. Sterling, M., Baker, C.J., Berry, P.M. and Wade, A. (2003), "An experimental investigation of the lodging of wheat", Agr. Forest Meteorol., 119(3-4), 149-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00140-0
  20. Wakimoto, R.M. (1982), "The life cycle of a thunderstorm gust front as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data", Monthly Weather Review, 110, 1060-1082. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1060:TLCOTG>2.0.CO;2
  21. Wakimoto, R.M. (2001), "Convectively driven high wind events", Severe Convective Storms, Meteorological Monographs, 28, 255-298. https://doi.org/10.1175/0065-9401-28.50.255
  22. Walker, G.R. (1992), "Wind engineering beyond the boundary layer wind tunnel", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 41- 43, 93-104.
  23. Wood, G.S., Kwok, K.C.S., Motteram, N.A. and Fletcher, D.F. (2001), "Physical and numerical modelling of thunderstorm downdrafts", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 89, 535–552. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(00)00090-8
  24. Wygnanski, I., Katz, Y. and Horev, E. (1992), "On the applicability of various scaling laws to the turbulent wall jet", J. Fluid Mech., 234, 669-690. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002211209200096X

Cited by

  1. Circumferential analysis of a simulated three-dimensional downburst-producing thunderstorm outflow vol.135, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2014.07.004
  2. An analytical model for simulating steady state flows of downburst vol.115, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2013.01.005
  3. Emerging issues and new frameworks for wind loading on structures in mixed climates vol.19, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2014.19.3.295
  4. Aerodynamic forces on the roofs of low-, mid- and high-rise buildings subject to transient winds vol.143, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2015.04.020
  5. Aerodynamic forces on generic buildings subject to transient, downburst-type winds vol.137, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2014.12.003
  6. Implementation of a gust front head collapse scheme in the WRF numerical model vol.203, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.12.018
  7. A simple vortex model of a thunderstorm downburst – A parametric evaluation vol.174, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.12.001
  8. Physical modelling of a downdraft outflow with a slot jet vol.13, pp.5, 2010, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2010.13.5.385
  9. Novel techniques in wind engineering vol.171, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.09.010
  10. A proposed model of the pressure field in a downburst vol.17, pp.2, 2013, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2013.17.2.123
  11. Field Data Analysis and Weather Scenario of a Downburst Event in Livorno, Italy, on 1 October 2012 vol.145, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0018.1
  12. A revised empirical model and CFD simulations for 3D axisymmetric steady-state flows of downbursts and impinging jets vol.102, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2011.12.004
  13. A Study of Downburst-induced Wind Loading on Buildings vol.40, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5359/jwe.40.40
  14. Novel software developments for the automated post-processing of high volumes of velocity time-series vol.89, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2015.06.007
  15. Hybrid simulation of thunderstorm outflows and wind-excited response of structures vol.52, pp.13, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-017-0718-x
  16. ダウンバーストシミュレータの試作 vol.24, pp.58, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3130/aijt.24.941
  17. Monitoring, cataloguing, and weather scenarios of thunderstorm outflows in the northern Mediterranean vol.18, pp.9, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-2309-2018