- Volume 12 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Analysis of light-frame, low-rise buildings under simulated lateral wind loads
- Fischer, C. (Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences) ;
- Kasal, B. (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Architectural Engineering, Penn State University)
- Received : 2007.10.11
- Accepted : 2008.12.18
- Published : 2009.03.25
The Monte Carlo procedure was used to simulate wind load effects on a light-frame low-rise structure of irregular shape and a main wind force resisting system. Two analytical models were studied: rigid-beam and rigid-plate models. The models assumed that roof diaphragms were rigid beam or rigid plate and shear walls controlled system behavior and failure. The parameters defining wall stiffness, including imperfections, were random and included wall stiffness, wall capacity and yield displacements. The effect of openings was included in the simulation via a set of discrete multipliers with uniform distribution. One and two-story buildings were analyzed and the models can be expanded into multiple-floor structures provided that the assumptions made in this paper are not violated.
- Adams, B.J., Womble, J.A., Mio, M.Z., Turner, J.B., Mehta, K.C. and Ghosh, S. (2004), Collection of satellite-referenced building damage information in the aftermath of Hurricane Charley, Natural Hazard Research and Applications Information Center, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.
- American Society of Civil Engineers (2005), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE/ SEI 7-05, ASCE New York, ISBN 0784408092.
- Collins, M., Kasal, B., Paevere, P.J. and Foliente, G.C. (2005b), "Three-dimensional model of light-frame wood buildings, II: Experimental investigation and validation of analytical model", J. Struct. Eng., 131, 684-692. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:4(684)
- Collins, M., Kasal, B., Paevere, P.J. and Foliente, G.C.(2005a), "Three-dimensional model of light-frame wood buildings, I: Model formulation", J. Struct. Eng., 131, 676-683. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2005)131:4(676)
- Cook, R.A. and Soltani, M. (eds) (1994), Hurricanes of 1992, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY.
- Corotis, R.B. and Dougherty, A.M. (2004), "Reliable design loads for natural phenomena: Illustration with wind speeds", Natural Hazard Review, 5, 40-47. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2004)5:1(40)
- Extreme Wind Speed Data Sets: Daily Maxima, Database provided by NIST, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/ winds/daily.htm.
- Foliente, G.F., Kasal, B., Paevere, P. and Collins, M. (2000), "Whole building testing and modeling for improved design of light-frame buildings", Proc. ASCE Structures Congress, Philadelphia. (M. Elgaaly, ed.), ASCE CD-ROM.
- Grigoriu, M. (2006), Probabilistic Models for Directionless Wind Speeds in Hurricanes, NIST GCR 06-906, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/winds/pdf_files/GCR06-906.pdf.
- Hanzlík, P., Diniz, S., Grazini, A., Grigoriu, M. and Simiu, E. (2005), "Building orientation and wind effects estimation", J. Eng. Mech., 131, 254-258. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2005)131:3(254)
- IRC (2006), International Residential Code For One- and Two-Family Dwellings, International Code Council, ICC Whittier, CA.
- Kasal, B. and Crandell, J. (2007), Part 1: Basic Components for Code Compliant Bracing, Builders Brief: BB0807, Pennsylvania Housing Research Center, State College, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
- Kasal, B., Collins, M., Foliente, G. and Paevere, P. (1999), "A hybrid deterministic and stochastic approach to inelastic modeling of light-frame buildings", Proc. from 1st Int. RILEM Symposium on Timber Engineering, L. Boström (ed.), RILEM publications, Stockholm, Sweden, ISBN 2-912143-10-1, 61-70.
- Kasal, B., Collins, M., Paevere, P.J. and Foliente, G.C. (2004), "Design models of light-frame wood buildings under lateral loads", J. Struct. Eng., 130, 1263-1271. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:8(1263)
- Memari, A., Kasal, B., Adams, A. and Manbeck, A. (2008), "Comparison of in-plane lateral load resistance of interior steel stud and wood stud light-frame walls", Proc. ASCE Structures Conf., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
- Paevere, P.J., Foliente, C. and Kasal, B. (2003), "Load-sharing and redistribution in a one-story woodframe building", J. Struct. Eng., 129, 1151-1286. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2003)129:9(1151)
- Pinelli, J.P., Simiu, E., Gurley, K., Subramanian, C., Zhang, L., Cope, A., Filliben, J.J. and Hamid, S. (2004), "Hurricane damage prediction model for residential structures", J. Struct. Eng., 130, 1685-1691. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:11(1685)
- Rosowsky, D.V. and Cheng, N. (1999a), "Reliability of light-frame roofs in high-wind regions, I: Wind loads", J. Struct. Eng., 125, 725-733. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125:7(725)
- Rosowsky, D.V. and Cheng, N. (1999b), "Reliability of light-frame roofs in high-wind regions, II: Reliability analysis", J. Struct. Eng., 125, 734-739. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125:7(734)
- Sadek, F., Diniz, S., Kasperski, M., Gioeffre, M. and Simiu, E. (2004), "Sampling errors in the estimation of peak wind-induced internal forces in low rise structures", J. Eng. Mech., 130, 235-239. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2004)130:2(235)
- Sadek, F. and Simiu, E. (2002), "Peak non-Gaussian wind effects for database-assisted low-rise building design", J. Eng. Mech., 128, 530-539. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2002)128:5(530)
- Simiu, E. and Scanlan, R. (1996), Wind effects on structures, 3rd edition, J. Wiley & Sons, New York.
- Smith, I. and Kasal, B. (2004), "Monitoring of environmental loads on timber buildings", Structures 2003- Building On The Past: Securing The Future, G. E. Blandford (ed.), Proc. ASCE Structures Congress, Nashville, TN. ASCE New York, NY. 1-10, 0-7844-0700-2.
- Whalen, T. M., Simiu, E., Harris, G., Lin, J. and Surry, D. (1998b), Aerodynamic databases and electronic standards for wind loads: A pilot application. NIST SP 931; August 1998, U.S./Japan Natural Resources Development Program (UJNR), Wind and Seismic Effects. Joint Meeting of the U.S./Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects, 30th. May 12-15, 1998, Gaithersburg, MD, Raufaste, N. J., Jr., (eds), 506-514.
- Whalen, T., Simiu, E., Harris, G., Lin, J. and Surry, D. (1998a), "The use of aerodynamic databases for the effective estimation of wind effects in main wind-force resisting systems: application to low buildings", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 77&78, 685-693.
- Database-assisted design methodology to predict wind-induced structural behavior of a light-framed wood building vol.33, pp.2, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.11.028