- Volume 11 Issue 1
Evaluation of bonding state of shotcrete lining using nondestructive testing methods - experimental analysis
비파괴 시험 기법을 이용한 숏크리트 배면 접착상태 평가에 관한 실험적 연구
- Published : 2009.03.27
Shotcrete is an important primary support for tunnelling in rock. The quality control of shotcrete is a core issue in the safe construction and maintenance of tunnels. Although shotcrete may be applied well initially onto excavated rock surfaces, it is affected by blasting, rock deformation and shrinkage and can debond from the excavated surface, causing problems such as corrosion, buckling, fracturing and the creation of internal voids. This study suggests an effective non-destructive evaluation method of the tunnel shotcrete bonding state applied onto hard rocks using the impact-echo (IE) method and ground penetration radar (GPR). To verify previous numerical simulation results, experimental study carried out. Generally, the bonding state of shotcrete can be classified into void, debonded, and fully bonded. In the laboratory, three different bonding conditions were modeled. The signals obtained from the experimental IE tests were analyzed at the time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain (i.e., the Short- Time Fourier transform). For all cases in the analyses, the experimental test results were in good agreement with the previous numerical simulation results, verifying this approach. Both the numerical and experimental results suggest that the bonding state of shotcrete can be evaluated through changes in the resonance frequency and geometric damping ratio in a frequency domain analysis, and through changes in the contour shape and correlation coefficient in a time-frequency analysis: as the bonding state worsens in hard rock condition, the autospectral density increases, the geometric damping ratio decreases, and the contour shape in the time-frequency domain has a long tail parallel to the time axis. The correlation coefficient can be effectively applied for a quantitative evaluation of bonding state of tunnel shotcrete. Finally, the bonding state of shotcrete can be successfully evaluated based on the process suggested in this study.
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