Isolation and Molecular Phylogeny of Three Muscle Actin Isoforms of an Endangered Freshwater Fish Species Hemibarbus mylodon (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae)

  • Published : 2009.02.25

Abstract

The Korean doty barbel Hemibarbus mylodon (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) is a critically endangered freshwater fish species mainly because of its natural habitat degradation. Three full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones representing different muscle actin isoforms were isolated and characterized. The three muscle actin isoforms were 1,294-1,601 bp long with the identical open reading frames of 1,134 bp with the deduced amino acid residues of 377. They showed 83.9-87.2% identities in the coding nucleotide level and 96.8-98.1% identities in the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis with the coding nucleotide sequences revealed that three muscle actin isoforms of H. mylodon formed strongly supported monophyletic groups with one of cypriniform skeletal $\alpha$-actin (acta1), cypriniform aortic $\alpha$-actins (acta2), and uncharacterized Danio rerio muscle actin isoform/Salmo trutta slow muscle actin (a novel muscle actin type). Our phylogenetic tree further suggested that cypriniform acta2 only showed the orthologous relationship to tetrapod acta2. Other multiple actin isoforms from diverse teleostean taxa were however clustered to no tetrapod orthologs, i.e., acta1, cardiac $\alpha$-actins (aetc1), acta2, and enteric $\gamma$-actin (actg2). This result strongly suggested that teleostean muscle actins have experienced different and complicated evolutionary history in comparison to mammalian counterparts.

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