Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity of Castor-aralia (Kalopanax pictus) Leaves

  • Published : 2009.12.31


The present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hot water extract and its fractions from dichloromethane ($CH_2Cl_2$), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), and water ($H_2O$) of castor-aralia (Kalopanax pictus) leaves using different antioxidant tests. Among these crude extract and fractions, EtOAc fraction exhibited higher antioxidant potency than others in 1,1-diphenyl-2-pricylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, reducing power assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity. However, $CH_2Cl_2$ fraction showed higher hydroxyl radical scavenging and DNA damage protective activity. This work demonstrates the potential of castor-aralia leaves as antioxidant functional food ingredients.


  1. Chyau CC, Tsai SY, Ko PT, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of solvent extracts from Terminalia catappa leaves. Food. Chem. 78: 483-488 (2002)
  2. Karihtala P, Soini Y. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant mechanisms in human tissues and their relation to malignancies. Apmis 115: 81-103 (2007)
  3. Agarwal A, Saleh RA, Bedaiwy MA. Role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of human reproduction. Fertil. Steril. 79: 829-843 (2003)
  4. Lefebvre PP, Malgrange B, Lallemend F, Staecker H, Moonen G, Van De Water TR. Mechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies. Audiol. Neuro-otol. 7: 165-170 (2002)
  5. Blokhina O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt KV. Antioxidants, oxidative damage, and oxygen deprivation stress: A review. Ann. Bot. -London 91: 179-194 (2003)
  6. Reiter R, Tang L, Garcia JJ, Munoz-Hoyos A. Pharmacological actions of melatonin in oxygen radical pathophysiology. Life Sci. 60: 2255-2271 (1997)
  7. Valentao P, Fernandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Bastos ML. Antioxidative properties of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) infusion against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid. J. Agr. Food. Chem. 50: 4989-4993 (2002)
  8. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci. 74: 2157-2184 (2004)
  9. Pemeberton RW, Lee NS. Wild food plants in South Korea; market presence, new crops, and exports to the United States. Econ. Bot. 50: 57-70 (1996)
  10. Choi J, Huh K, Kim SH, Lee KT, Park HJ, Han YN. Antinociceptive and anti-rheumatoidal effects of Kalopanax pictus extract and its saponin components in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79: 199-204 (2002)
  11. Park HJ, Kim KH, Choi JW, Park JH, Han YN. A potent antidiabetic agent from Kalopanax pictus saponin. Arch. Pharm. Res. 21: 24-29 (1998)
  12. Park HJ, Kwon SH, Lee JH, Lee KH, Miyamoto K, Lee KT. Kalopanaxsaponin A is a basic saponin structure for the anti-tumor activity of hederagenin monodesmosides. Planta Med. 67: 118-121 (2001)
  13. Li DW, Lee EB, Kang SS, Hyun JE, Whang WK. Activity-guided isolation of saponins from Kalopanax pictus with anti-inflammatory activity. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 50: 900-903 (2002)
  14. Park H, Nam J, Jung H, Kim W, Park K, Chung WY, Choi J. In vivo antinociceptive antiinflamatory and antioxidative effects of the leaf and stem bark of Kalopanax pictus in rats. Korean J. Pharmacogn. 36: 318-323 (2005)
  15. Park HJ, Lee KT, Jung WT, Choi JW, Kadota S. Protective effects of syringin isolated from Kalopanax pictus on galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity. Nat. Med. 53: 113-117 (1999)
  16. Zhu W, Jia X, Zhang A, Zhang T, Wu Y. Advances in the research of Kalopana. Xi Bei Nong Lin Ke Ji Da Xue Xue Bao Zi Ran Ke Xue Ban 19: 119-124 (2004)
  17. Javanmardi J, Stushnoff C, Locke E, Vivanco JM. Antioxdiant activity and total phenolic content of Iranian Ocimum accessions. Food Chem. 83: 547-550 (2003)
  18. Kwon YI, Vattem DA, Shetty K. Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 15: 107-118 (2006)
  19. Lu MJ, Chen C. Enzymatic modification by tannase increase the antioxidant activity of green tea. Food. Res. Int. 41: 130-137 (2008)
  20. Chung SK, Osawa T. Hydroxy radical scavengers from white mustard (Sinapis alba). Food. Sci. Biotechnol. 7: 209-213 (1998)
  21. Qian Z, Jung WK, Byun HG, Kim SK. Protective effect of an antioxidative peptide purified from gastrointestinal digests of oyster, Crassostrea gigas against free radical induced DNA damage. Bioresource Technol. 99: 3365-3371 (2008)
  22. Gupta S, Prakash J. Studies on Indian green leafy vegetables for their antioxidant activity. Plant Food. Hum. Nutr. 64: 39-45 (2009)
  23. Lo KM, Cheung PCK. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe aegerita var. alba. Food Chem. 89: 533-539 (2005)
  24. Jeong YJ. Optimization of extraction conditions on physicochemical properties of extracts from stem barks of Kalopanax pictus. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 733-738 (2004)
  25. Siriwardhana N, Lee KW, Jeon YJ, Kim SH, Haw JW. Antioxidant activity of Hizikia fusiformis on reactive oxygen species scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Food. Sci. Technol. Int. 9: 339-346 (2003)
  26. Heo SJ, Park EJ, Lee KW, Jeon YJ. Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds. Bioresource Technol. 96: 1613-1623 (2005)
  27. Ahn BY. Free radical scavening effect of ethanol extract from Areca catechu. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 52: 92-95 (2009)
  28. Breborowicz A. Free radicals in peritoneal dialysis: Agents of damage? Periton. Dialysis Int. 12: 194-198 (1992)
  29. Povirk LF. DNA damage and mutagenesis by radiomimetic DNAcleaving agents: Bleomycin, neocarzinostatin, and other enediynes. Mutat. Res. 355: 71-89 (1996)
  30. Girotti AW. Lipid hydroperoxide generation, turnover, and effector action in biological systems. J. Lipid Res. 39: 1529-1542 (1998)
  31. Lee JC, Lim KT, Jang YS. Identification of Rhus verniciflua Stokes compounds that exhibit free radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic properties. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1570: 181-191 (2002)
  32. Loft S, Fischer-Nielsen A, Jeding IB, Vistisen K, Poulsen HE. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine as a urinary biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. J Toxicol. Env. Health 40: 391-404 (1993)
  33. Je JY, Ahn CB, Oh MJ, Kang SY. Antioxidant activity of a red seaweed Polysiphonia morrowii extract. Food. Sci. Biotechnol. 18: 124-129 (2009)
  34. Kumaran A, Joel Karunakaran R. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food. Chem. 97: 109-114 (2006)
  35. Hu C, Kwok BHL, Kitts DD. Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) scavenge free radicals and inhibit intracellular oxidation. Food Res. Int. 38: 1079-1085 (2005)
  36. Maisuthisakul P, Suttajit M, Pongsawatmanit R. Assessment of phenolic content and free radical-scavenging capacity of some Thai indigenous plants. Food Chem. 100: 1409-1418 (2007)
  37. Lafka TI, Sinanoglou VS, Lazos ES. On the extraction and antioxidant activity activity of phenolic compounds from winery wasters. Food Chem. 104: 1206-1214 (2007)