Comparative Study on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Traditional Chinese-type Soy Sauces Prepared with Soybean and Defatted Soy Meal

  • Gao, Xian-Li (College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology) ;
  • Zhao, Hai-Feng (College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology) ;
  • Zhao, Mou-Ming (College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology) ;
  • Cui, Chun (College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology) ;
  • Ren, Jiao-Yan (College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology)
  • Published : 2009.12.31

Abstract

Volatile extracts obtained from traditional Chinese-type soy sauces prepared with soybean (SSSB) and defatted soy meal (SSDSM) by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and direct solvent extraction (DSE) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The volatile flavor compounds and relative contents of different chemical classes detected in SSSB and SSDSM were compared for their differences. Results showed that significant differences in both constituents of volatile flavor compounds and relative contents of different chemical classes were observed for both kinds of soy sauces. A total of 152 and 131 compounds were identified in SSSB and SSDSM, respectively, and 102 volatile flavor compounds were common in both kinds of soy sauces. Moreover, relative contents of acids, aldehydes, esters, furan(one)s, miscellaneous compounds, phenols, pyrazines, pyrrol(idinon)es, and sulfur-containing compounds in both kinds of soy sauces were all significantly different.

References

  1. Wanakhachornkrai P, Lertsiri S. Comparison of determination method for volatile compounds in Thai soy sauce. Food Chem. 83: 619-629 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00256-5
  2. Yan LJ, Zhang YF, Tao WY, Wang LP, Wu SF. Rapid determination of volatile flavor components in soy sauce using head space solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chin. J. Chromatogr. 26: 285-290 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2059(08)60017-6
  3. Wang Y, Zhao MM, Ou SY, Song KK. Partial hydrolysis of soy oil by phospholipase A1 to produce diacylglycerol-enriched oil. J. Food Lipids 16: 113-132 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2009.01136.x
  4. Melton SL, Moryes RE, Playford CG. Lipids extracted for soy products by different procedures. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56: 489-493 (1979) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02680185
  5. Eldridge AC. Chemical comparison of a Mexican soybean variety with a US variety. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60: 1132-1134 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02671341
  6. Curionia PMG, Bosset JO. Key odorants in various cheese types as determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Int. Dairy J. 12: 959-984 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(02)00124-3
  7. Jerkovic I, Mastelic J, Tartaglia S. A study of volatile flavour substances in Dalmatian traditional smoked ham: Impact of drycuring and frying. Food Chem. 104: 1030-1039 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.013
  8. Mottram DS. Flavour formation in meat and meat products: A review. Food Chem. 62: 415-424 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00076-4
  9. Muriel E, Antequera T, Petron MJ, Andres AI, Ruiz J. Volatile compounds in Iberian dry-cured loin. Meat Sci. 68: 391-400 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.04.006
  10. Baek HH, Kim HJ. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry of soy sauce based on sample dilution analysis. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 90-95 (2004)
  11. Lee SM, Seo BC, Kim YS. Volatile compounds in fermented and acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce. J. Food Sci. 71: 146-156 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00043.x
  12. Nunomura N, Sasaki M, AsaoY, Yokosuka T. Shoyu (soy sauce) flavor components: Basic fraction. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 42: 2123-2128 (1978) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.42.2123
  13. Nunomura N, Sasaki M, Yokosuka T. Shoyu (soy sauce) flavor components: Acidic fractions and the characteristic flavor component. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 44: 339-351 (1980) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.44.339
  14. Nunomura N, Sasaki M, Yokosuka T. Shoyu (soy sauce) flavor components: Neutral fraction. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 48: 1753-1762 (1984) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.48.1753
  15. Petra S, Peter S. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55: 6262-6269 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0709092
  16. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 16th ed. Method 32.1.22, 32.1.02, 32.1.14. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA (1995)
  17. Jiang JJ, Zeng QX, Zhu ZW, Zhan LY. Chemical and sensory changes associated yu-lu fermentation process-A traditional Chinese fish sauce. Food Chem. 104: 1629-1634 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.024
  18. Wang J, Li YZ, Chen RR, Bao JY, Yang GM. Comparison of volatiles of banana powder dehydrated by vacuum belt drying, freeze-drying, and air-drying. Food Chem. 104: 1516-1561 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.02.029
  19. Mantel MC, Masson F, Talon R. Bacterial role in flavour development. Meat Sci. 49: 111-123 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)90042-0
  20. Sungko H, Kim TH, Cho IH, Yang JY, Kim YS, Lee SJ. Aroma active compounds of bulgogi. Food Chem. Toxicol. 70: 517-522 (2005)
  21. Tetsuo A. Glass capillary chromatographic profiles of soy sauce aroma correlated with sensory evaluation. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 45: 2847-2853 (1981)
  22. Dirinck P, Winne AD. Flavour characterisation and classification of cheeses by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric profiling. J. Chromatogr. A 847: 203-208 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00193-4
  23. Veronicas C, Simona V, Carmen S. Kinetics of soybean lipoxygenases are related to pH, substrate availability, and extraction. J. Food Biochem. 32: 153-172 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2008.00169.x
  24. Lee SJ, Ahn B. Comparison of volatile components in fermented soybean pastes using simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) with sensory characterization. Food Chem. 114: 600-609 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.091
  25. Yasuo H, Mayuko H, Yoshifumi T. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) production in simple media by lactic acid bacterium, Lactococcus lactis subsp., cremoris IFO 3427. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 91: 97-99 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1263/jbb.91.97
  26. Chung HY. Volatile components in fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 2690-2696 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981166a
  27. Chung HY, Fung PK, Kim JS. Aroma impact components in commercial plain sufu. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 1684-1691 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048617d
  28. Park D, Maga JA. Identification of key volatiles responsible for odour quality differences in popped popcorn of selected hybrids. Food Chem. 99: 538-545 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.019
  29. Nunomura N, Sasaki M. Off-flavors in Foods and Beverages. Elsevier, New York, NY, USA. pp. 287-312 (1992)
  30. Yutaka M, Kan K, Hideo T. Flavor components of miso: Basic fraction. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 47: 1487-1492 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.47.1487
  31. Fors S. The Maillard Reaction in Foods and Nutrition. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 185-286 (1983)