Investigation on the Functional Properties of Chestnut Flours and Their Potential Utilization in Low-fat Cookies

  • Inkaya, Ayse N. (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Uludag University) ;
  • Gocmen, Duygu (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Uludag University) ;
  • Ozturk, Serpil (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Sakarya University) ;
  • Koksel, Hamit (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Hacettepe University)
  • Published : 2009.12.31


Chestnut flours (CFs) were produced from 3 chestnut samples (Aydin, Kutahya, and Bursa) by 2 different methods (boiled and oven-dried: BOD-CF and freeze-dried: FD-CF). Functional properties and effects of CF addition (10, 20, and 30%) on the qualities of regular and low-fat cookie were investigated. The freeze drying significantly increased water solubility of CFs but decreased their water binding capacity. The emulsion capacity and stability of FD-CFs were higher than those of BOD-CFs. At pH 4, 6, 8, and 10 FD-CFs had better gelation properties. Spread ratio (SR) values of BOD-CF supplemented regular or low-fat cookies decreased with increasing CF levels. Hardness values of CF supplemented regular cookies were generally lower compared to control. SR and hardness values of FD-CF supplemented cookies were higher than those of BOD-CF supplemented ones. Surface colors of the cookies were darker with FD-CF addition as compared to BODCF addition. In low-fat cookies, the sample supplemented with 10% Kutahya FD-CF had the highest taste-flavor value. FDCF supplementation generally resulted in higher appearance and taste-flavor scores than BOD-CF supplementation in cookies.



  1. Alary R, Buissonade C, Joudrier P, Gautier MF. Detection and discrimination of cereal and leguminous species in chestnut flour by duplex PCR. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 225: 427-434 (2007)
  2. Borges O, Goncalves B, Soeiro de Carvalho JL, Correia P, Silva AP. Nutritional quality of chestnut (Castanea sativa mill.) cultivars from Portugal. Food Chem. 106: 976-984 (2008)
  3. Kunsch K, Scharer H, Conedera M, Sassella A, Jermini M, Jelmini G. Quality assesment of chestnut fruits. Acta Hortic. 494: 119-127 (1999)
  4. Salas-Salvado J, Megias I. Health and tree nuts: Scientific evidence of disease prevence. Acta Hortic. 686: 507-513 (2005)
  5. Hoseney RC. Principles of Cereal Science and Technology. 2nd ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., The Association, St. Paul, MN, USA. pp. 29-64, 275-305 (1998)
  6. Maache-Rezzoug Z, Bouvier JM, Allaf K, Patras C. Effect of principal ingredients on rheological behaviour of biscuit dough and quality of biscuits. J. Food Eng. 35: 23-42 (1998)
  7. Baltsavias A, Jurgens A, Vliet TV. Rheological properties of short doughs at small deformation. J. Cereal Sci. 26: 289-300 (1997)
  8. Akoh CC. Fat replacers. IFT Scientific Status Summary. Food Technol. -Chicago 52: 47-53 (1998)
  9. Sudha ML, Srivastava AK, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K. Fat replacement in soft dough biscuits: Its implications on dough rheology and biscuit quality. J. Food Eng. 80: 922-930 (2007)
  10. AACC Intl. Approved Methods of the AACC. 10th ed. The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA (2000)
  11. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. 15th ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA (1990)
  12. Singh J, Singh N. Studies on the morphological and rheological properties of granular cold water soluble corn and potato starches. Food Hydrocolloid 17: 63-72 (2003)
  13. Koksel H, Masatcıoglu T, Kahraman K, Ozturk S, Basman A. Improving effect of lyophilization on functional properties of resistant starch preparations formed by acid hydrolysis and heat treatment. J. Cereal Sci. 47: 275-282 (2008)
  14. Ahmedna M, Prinyawiwatkul W, Rao RM. Solubilized wheat protein isolate: Functional properties and potential food applications. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 1340-1345 (1999)
  15. Bilgi B, Celik S. Solubility and emulsifying properties of barley protein concentrate. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 218: 437-441 (2004)
  16. Casella MLA, Whitaker JR. Stabilization of proteins by solvents. J. Food Biochem. 14: 453-475 (1990)
  17. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275 (1951)
  18. Ibanoglu E, Ibanoglu S. Foaming behaviour of EDTA-treated $\alpha$-lactalbumin. Food Chem. 66: 477-481 (1999)
  19. Yalcin E, Sakiyan O, Sumnu G, Celik S, Koksel H. Functional properties of microwave-treated wheat gluten. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 227: 1411-1417 (2008)
  20. Coffman CW, Garcia VV. Functional properties and amino acid content of protein isolate from mung bean flour. J. Food Technol. 12: 473-484 (1977)
  21. Adebowale KO, Lawal OS. Comparative study of the functional properties of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranean), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), and mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) flours. Food Res. Int. 37: 355-365 (2004)
  22. Sacchetti G, Pinnavaia GG. A ready-to-eat chestnut flour based breakfast cereal production and optimization. Acta Hortic. 494: 61-68 (1999)
  23. Sacchetti G, Pinnavaia GG, Guidolin E, Rosa MD. Effects of extrusion temperature and feed composition on the functional, physical, and sensory properties of chestnut and rice flour-based snack-like products. Food Res. Int. 37: 527-534 (2004)
  24. Correia P, Leitao A, Beirao-da-Costa ML. The effect of drying temperatures on morphological and chemical properties of dried chestnuts flours. J. Food Eng. 90: 325-332 (2009)
  25. Catsimpoola N, Funk SK, Meyer EV. Thermal degradation of glycinin subunits. Cereal Chem. 47: 331-340 (1970)
  26. Belitz HD, Grosch W. Aminoacids, peptides, and proteins. pp. 8-91. In: Food Chemistry. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany (1999)
  27. Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugbane O, Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional properties of African breadfruit kernel and flour blends. Food Res. Int. 33: 707-712 (2000)
  28. Yusuf AA, Ayedun H, Sanni LO. Chemical composition and functional properties of raw and roasted Nigerian benniseed (Sesamum indicum) and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean). Food Chem. 111: 277-282 (2008)
  29. Koksel H, Ozboy O. Effects of sugarbeet fiber on cookie quality. Zuckerindustrie 124: 542-544 (1999)
  30. Ozturk S, Ozboy-Ozbas O, Javidipour I, Koksel H. Utilization of sugarbeet fiber and zero-trans interesterified and non-interesterified shortenings in cookie production. ZuckerIndustrie 133: 704-709 (2008)
  31. Ozturk S, Ozboy O, Cavidoglu I, Koksel H. Effects of brewer's spent grain on the quality and dietary fiber content of cookies. J. Inst. Brew. 108: 23-27 (2002)
  32. Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K. Influence of fiber from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food Chem. 100: 1365-1370 (2007)