Effect of Low Intensity Pulsed Electric Field on Ethanol Fermentation and Chemical Component Variation in a Winemaking Culture

  • Min, He-Ryeon (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University) ;
  • Jeon, Bo-Young (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University) ;
  • Seo, Ha-Na (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University) ;
  • Kim, Min-Ju (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University) ;
  • Kim, Jun-Cheol (Korea Wine Academy) ;
  • Kim, Joon-Kuk (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University) ;
  • Park, Doo-Hyun (Department of Biological Engineering, Seokyeong University)
  • Published : 2009.12.31


Electric polarity of working electrode and counter electrode was periodically switched at the intervals of 30 sec. Electric current generated by anodic and cathodic reaction of working electrode was reached to +30 and -12 mA in low intensity pulsed electric field (LIPEF). The yeast growth, ethanol production, and malate consumption in the initial cultivation time were more activated in the LIPEF than the conventional condition (CC). Polyphenol, total phenolic contents (TPC), and total flavonols (TF) were gradually decreased in all cultivation conditions during incubation for 2 weeks but antioxidation activity was not. TF was significantly lower in 3 and 4 V of LIPEF than CC and 2 V of LIPEF; however, the polyphenol, TPC, and antioxidation activity were a little influenced by the LIPEF. After ripening of the winemaking culture for 15 days, polyphenol, TPC, and TF were a little increased but the antioxidation activity was not.


  1. Tiat VHK, Sebastian P, Nadeau JP. Multicriteria-oriented preliminary design of a flash evaporation process for cooling in the wine-making process. J. Food Eng. 85: 491-508 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.08.015
  2. Fang F, Li J-M, Zhang P, Tang K, Wang W, Pan Q-H, Huang W-D. Effects of grape variety, harvest date, fermentation vessel, and wine ageing on flavonoid concentration in red wines. Food Res. Int. 41: 53-60 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.09.004
  3. Versari A, Boulton RB, Parpinello GP. A comparison of analytical methods for measuring the color components of red wines. Food Chem. 106: 397-402 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.073
  4. Ando A, Suzuki C, Shima J. Survival of genetically modified and self-cloned strains of commercial baker's yeast in stimulated natural environments: Environment at risk assessment. Appl. Environ. Microb. 71: 7075-7082 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.11.7075-7082.2005
  5. Ponciano JM, Vandercasteele FPJ, Hess TF, Fomey LJ, Crawford RL, Joyce P. Use of strochastic models to assess the effect of environmental factors on microbial growth. Appl. Environ. Microb. 71: 2355-2364 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.5.2355-2364.2005
  6. Steve SH, Lin T, Duff SJB. Optimization of spent sulfite liquor fermentation. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 42: 259-264 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2007.10.004
  7. Guzzo J, Jobin MP, Divies C. Increase of sulfite tolerance in Oenococcus oeni by means of acidic adaptation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 160: 43-47 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1998.tb12888.x
  8. Yuasa N, Nakagawa Y, Hayakawa M, Iimura Y. Distribution of the sulfite resistance gene SSUI-R and the variation in its promoter region in wine yeast. J. Bacteriol. 98: 394-397 (2004)
  9. Costa A, Barata A, Malfeito-Ferreira M, Loureiro V. Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of dimethyl dicarbonate against wine microorganisms. Food Microbiol. 25: 422-427 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2007.10.003
  10. Mateo JJ, Jimenez M, Pastor A, Huerta T. Yeast starter cultures affecting wine fermentation and volatiles. Food Res. Int. 34: 307-314 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00168-X
  11. Devatine A, Chiciuc L, Poupot C, Peuchot MM. Micro-oxygenation of wine in presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. Chem. Eng. Sci. 62: 4579-4588 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2007.05.031
  12. Debs-Louka E, Louka N, Abraham G, Charbot V, Allaf K. Effect of compressed carbon dioxide on microbial cell viability. Appl. Environ. Microb. 65: 626-631 (1999)
  13. Van Hoek P, van Dijken JP, Pronk JT. Regulation of fermentative capacity and levels of glycolytic enzymes in chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 26: 724-736 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(00)00164-2
  14. Graumligh TR, Stevenson KE. Respiration and viability of thermally injured Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Environ. Microb. 38: 461-465 (1979)
  15. Nagodawithana TW, Casterllano C, Steinkraus KH. Effect of dissolved oxygen, temperature, initial cell count, and sugar concentration on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in rapid fermentations. Appl. Microbiol. 28: 383-391 (1974)
  16. Bartowsky EJ, Henschke PA. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine- a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 125: 60-70 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.10.016
  17. Al-Numair KS, Ahmed SEB, Al-Assaf AH, Alamri MS. Hydrochloric acid extractable minerals and phytate and polyphenols contents of sprouted faba and white bean cultivars. Food Chem. 113: 997-1002 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.051
  18. Lee YR, Nho JW, Hwang IG, Kim WJ, Lee YJ, Jeong HS. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ramie leaf (Boehmeria nivea L.). Food Sci. Biotechnol. 18: 1096-1099 (2009)
  19. Du GMLi, Ma F, Liang D. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in actinidia fruits. Food Chem. 113: 552-562 (2009)
  20. Śusarczyk S, Hajnos M, Skalicka-WoŸiak K, Matkowski A. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from Lycopus lucidus Turcz. Food Chem. 113: 134-138 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.037
  21. Jeon BY, Kim SJ, Kim DH, Na BK, Park DH, Tran HT, Zhang R, Ahn DH. Development of a serial bioreactor system for direct ethanol production from starch using Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioproc. E. 12: 566-573 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02931356
  22. Higuchi M. The effect of oxygen on the growth and mannitol fermentation of Streptococcus mutans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 1819-1826 (1984)
  23. Alexandre H, Rousseaux I, Charpentier C. Relationship between ethanol tolerance, lipid composition, and plasma membrane fluidity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kloeckera epiculata. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 124: 17-22 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb07255.x
  24. Sablayrolles JM, Dubois C, Manginot C, Roustan JL, Barre P. Effectiveness of combined ammoniacal nitrogen and oxygen additions for completion of sluggish and stuck wine fermentations. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 82: 377-381 (1996)
  25. Castro AJ, Barbosa-Canovas GV, Swanson BG. Microbial inactivation of foods by pulsed electric fields. J. Food Process. Pres. 17: 47-73 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.1993.tb00225.x
  26. Palaniappan S, Sastry SK, Richter ER. Effects of electricity on microorganisms: A review. J. Food Process. Pres. 14: 393-414 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.1990.tb00142.x
  27. Zhang Q, Qin B-L, Barbosa-Canovas GV, Swanson BG. Inactivation of E. coli for food pasteurization by high-strength pulsed electric fields. J. Food Process. Pres. 19: 103-118 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.1995.tb00281.x
  28. Grahl T, Maerkl H. Killing of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 45: 148-157 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530050663
  29. Rosenfeld E, Beauvoit B, Blondin B, Salmon J-M. Oxygen consumption by anaerobic Saccharomyces cerevisiae under enological conditions: Effect on fermentation kinetics. Appl. Environ. Microb. 69: 113-121 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.1.113-121.2003
  30. Burke PV, Kwast KE, Everts F, Poyton RO. A fermenter system for regulating oxygen at low concentration in cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Environ. Microb. 64: 1040-1044 (1998)
  31. Bruinenberg PM, De Bot PHM, Van Dijken JP, Scheffers WA. The role of the redox balance in the anaerobic fermentation of xylose by yeasts. Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 287-292 (1983) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00500493
  32. Li Z, Pan QH, Jin, ZM, He JJ, Liang NN, Duan CQ. Evolution of 49 phenolic compounds in shortly-aged red wines made from Cabernet Gernischt (Vitis vinifera L.cv.). Food Sci. Biotechnol. 18: 1001-1012 (2009)