A Study on change in thermal properties and chemical structure of Zr-Ni delay system by aging

노화에 따른 Zr-Ni계 지연관의 열 특성 및 화학적 구조 변화에 관한 연구

  • Park, Byung Chan (Ammunition Center 1st Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality) ;
  • Chang, Il Ho (Ammunition Center 1st Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality) ;
  • Kim, Sun Tae (Department of Chemistry, Hannam University) ;
  • Hwang, Taek Sung (Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Lee, Seungho (Department of Chemistry, Hannam University)
  • 박병찬 (국방기술품질원) ;
  • 장일호 (국방기술품질원) ;
  • 김선태 (한남대학교 화학과) ;
  • 황택성 (충남 대학교 화학공학과) ;
  • 이승호 (한남대학교 화학과)
  • Received : 2009.04.07
  • Accepted : 2009.06.11
  • Published : 2009.08.25

Abstract

It has been observed that, after long term storage, some ammunitions are misfired by tamping (combustionstopping) due to aging of the chemicals loaded in the ammunitions. Used in ammunitions are percussion powder which provides the initial energy, igniter which ignites the percussion powder, and a delay system that delays the combustion for a period of time. The percussion powder is loaded first, followed by the igniter and then the delay system, and the ammunitions explode by the energy being transferred in the same order. Tamping occurs by combustion-stopping of the igniter or insufficient energy transfer from the igniter to the delay system or the combustion-stopping of the delay system, which are suspected to be caused by low purity of the components, inappropriate mixing ratio, size distribution of particulate components, type of the binder, blending method, hydrolysis by the humidity penetrated during the long term storage, and chemical changes of the components by high temperature. Goal of this study is to find the causes of the combustion-stopping of the igniter and the delay system of the ammunitions after long term storage. In this study, a method was developed for testing of the combustion-stopping, and the size distributions of the particulate components were analyzed with field-flow fractionation (FFF), and then the mechanism of chemical change during long term storage was investigated by thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry), XRD (X-ray diffractometry), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). For the ignition system, M (metal)-O (oxygen) and M-OH peaks were observed at the oxygen's 1s position in the XPS spectrum. It was also found by XRD that $Fe_3O_4$ was produced. Thus it can be concluded that the combustion-stopping is caused by reduction in energy due to oxidation of the igniter.

Keywords

Igniter;delay system;field-flow fractionation (FFF);X-ray diffractometry;X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

References

  1. F. R. Taylor, L. R. Lopez, P. L. Farnell, 15th IPS, 1990
  2. M. R. Park, D. Y. Kang, J. Chmelik, N. Kang, J. S. Kim and S. Lee, J. Chromatography A, 1209, 206-211(2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.09.014
  3. J. S. Hammond, J. W. Holubka, J. E. deVries and R. A. Dickie, Corrosion Sci., 21, 239-253(1981) https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-938X(81)90033-0
  4. M. S. Hegde, A. Srinvasan, D. D. Sarma and C. N. R. Rao, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 25, 231- 236(1982) https://doi.org/10.1016/0368-2048(82)85020-2
  5. H. Nakamura, Y. Ban, Y. Hara and H. Osada, 'Oxidation of metallic Powder', Kogyo Kayaku, 48, 151-159(1987)
  6. 김소미, 'Zirconium/Potassium Perchlorate의 열화학적 성질 분석', 제 7회 한화기술심포지엄, 130-136(2007)
  7. A. A. Shidlovsky, Principles of pyrotechnics, 3rd Ed., Moscow, 1964
  8. J. F. Moulder, W. F. Stickle, P. E. Sobol and K. D. Bomben, in J. Chastain (Ed.), Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Perkln-Elmer Corp. Physical Electronics Division, Minnesota, 1992
  9. A. J. Beardell, A. D. Kirshenbaum, C. Camphbell and U. S NTIS, AD734311(1971)