cDNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in Boar Testes during the Prepubertal Period

  • Lee, Dong-Mok (School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Lee, Ki-Ho (Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Eulji University) ;
  • Choi, Jin Ho (School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Hyun, Jin Hee (Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Lee, Eun Ju (Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Bajracharya, Prati (Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Lee, Yong Seok (Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine and Frontier Inje Research for Science and Technology, Inje University) ;
  • Chang, Jongsoo (Department of Agricultural Sciences, Korea National Open University) ;
  • Chung, Chung Soo (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Choi, Inho (School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University,Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University)
  • Received : 2009.01.02
  • Accepted : 2009.04.02
  • Published : 2009.08.01


In an attempt to understand the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of the anabolic steroid, 19-nortestosterone, produced by prepubertal boar testes and its physiological role, normalized complementary DNA (cDNA) from boar testes was generated. DNA sequencing of 2,016 randomly selected clones yielded 794,116 base pairs of high quality nucleotide sequence. Computer-assisted assembly of the nucleotide sequence of each clone resulted in 423 contigs and 403 singletons including several genes for steroidogenic enzymes and molecules related to steroid metabolism. Analysis of gene expression pattern by use of the presently-fabricated cDNA microarray identified a number of genes that were differentially expressed during the postnatal development period in boar testes. Two genes of unknown function were identified to be highly expressed in the testis of 2-weeks-old neonatal boar. In addition, the sequencing of open reading frames of these genes revealed their homology with human alpha hemoglobin and Homo sapiens hypothetical LOC643669, transcript variant 1. Moreover, the transcripts of these genes were also detected in porcine muscle and adipocytes, in addition to Leydig cells of pigs.


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. Altschul, S. F., W. Gish, W. Miller, E. W. Meyers and D. J. Lipman. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410
  2. Boulton, A. A. and G. Eisenhofer. 1998. Catecholamine metabolism. From molecular understanding to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Adv. Pharmacol. 42:273-292
  3. Chen, H. W., S. L. Yu, W. J. Chen, P. C. Yang, C. T. Chien, H. Y. Chou, H. N. Li, K. Peck, C. H. Huang, F. Y. Lin, J. J. Chen and Y. T. Lee. 2004. Dynamic changes of gene expression profiles during postnatal development of the heart in mice. Heart 90:927-934
  4. Choi, I., J.-Y. Kim, E. J. Lee, Y. Y. Kim, C. S. Chung, J. Chang, N.-J. Choi, H.-J. Chung and K.-H. Lee. 2009. Ontogeny of expression and localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the neonatal and prepubertal pig testes. J. Androl. 30:57-74
  5. Choi, I., D. L. Troyer, D. L. Cornwell, K. R. Kirby-Dobbels, W. R. Collante and F. A. Simmen. 1997. Closely related genes encode developmental and tissue isoforms of porcine cytochrome P450 aromatase. DNA Cell Biol. 16:769-777
  6. Choi, N. J., J. H. Hyun, J. M. Choi, E. J. Lee, K. H. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Chang, I. B. Chung, C. S. Chung and I. Choi. 2007. Testicular expression steroidogenic enzyme genes is related to a transient increase in serum 19-nortestosterone during neonatal development in pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1832-1842
  7. Debruyckere, G. and C. Van Peteghem. 1991. Detection of 19-nortestosterine and its urinary metabolites in miniature pigs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 564:393-403
  8. Ewing, B., L. Hillier, M. C. Wendl and P. Green. 1998. Basecalling of automated sequencer traces using phred. I. Accuracy assessment. Genome Res. 8:175-185
  9. Fran$\c{c}$a, L. R., V. A. Silva, H. Chiarini-Garcia, S. K. Garcia and L. Debeljuk. 2000. Cell proliferation and hormonal changes during postnatal development of the testis in the pig. Biol. Reprod. 63:1629-1636
  10. Guo, W., S. H. Wang, H. J. Cao, K. Xu, J. Zhang, Z. L. Du, W. Lu, J. D. Feng, N. Li, C. H. Wu and L. Zhang. 2008. Gene microarray analysis for porcine adipose tissue: comparison of gene expression between Chinese Xiang pig and large white. Asian-Aust. J. Anim Sci. 21:11-18
  11. Hoffmann, F. and E. Maser. 2007. Carbonyl reductase and pluripotent hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Drug Metab. Rev. 39:87-144
  12. Kao, Y. C., T. Higashiyama, X. Sun, T. Okubo, C. Yarborough, I. Choi, Y. Osawa, F. A. Simmen and S. Chen. 2000. Catalytic differences between porcine blastocyst and placental aromatase isozymes. Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6134-6139
  13. Kim, C. W., K. T. Chang, Y. H. Hong, W. Y. Jung, E. J. Kwon, K. K. Cho, K. H. Chung, B. W. Kim, J. G. Lee, J. S. Yeo, Y. S. Kang and Y. K. Joo. 2005. cDNA microarray analysis of the gene expression profile of swine muscle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1080-1087
  14. Lay, S. L., C. Lefrere, C. Trautwein, I. Dugail and S. Krief. 2002. Insulin and sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1C) regulation of gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 277:35625-35634
  15. Pertea, G., X. Huang, F. Liang, V. Antonescu, R. Sultana, S. Karamycheva, Y. Lee, J. White, F. Cheung, B. Parvizi, J. Tsai and J. Quackenbush. 2003. TIGR gene indices clustering tools (TGICL): a software system for fast clustering of large EST datasets. Bioinformatics 19:651-652
  16. Ponsuksili, S., E. Murani, C. Walz, M. Schwerin and K. Wimmers. 2007. Pre- and postnatal hepatic gene expression profiles of two pig breeds differing in body composition: insight into pathways of metabolic regulation. Physiol. Genomics 29:267-279
  17. Rice, P., I. Longden and A. Bleasby. 2000. EMBOSS: The European molecular biology open software suite. Trends Genet. 16:276-277
  18. Sasaki, Y. F., D. Avusawa and M. Oishi. 1994. Construction of a normalized cDNA library by introduction of a semi-solid mRNA - cDNA hybridization system. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:987-992
  19. Schwarzenberger, F., G. S. Toole, H. L. Christie and J. I. Raeside. 1993. Plasma levels of several androgens and estrogens from birth to puberty in male domestic pigs. Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh) 128:173-177
  20. Stanton, H. C. and S. K. Woo. 1978. Development of adrenal medullary function in swine. Am. J. Physiol. 234:E137-E145
  21. Tanaka, M., S. Ohno, S. Adachi, S. Nakajin, M. Shinoda and Y. Nagahama. 1992. Pig testicular 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase exhibits carbonyl reductase-like structure and activity. cDNA cloning of pig testicular 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 267:13451-13455
  22. Wu, F., S. Lee, M. Schumacher, A. Jun and S. Chakravarti. 2008. Differential gene expression patterns of the developing and adult mouse cornea compared to the les and tendon. Exp. Eye Res. 87:214-225

Cited by

  1. Gene Expression Profiles of Colonic Mucosa in Healthy Young Adult and Senior Dogs vol.5, pp.9, 2010,