DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Butanol Fraction from the Fruit of Citrus junos

  • Cho, Eun-Ju (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University) ;
  • Li, Li (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University) ;
  • Piao, Xiang-Lan (Chinese Minority Traditional Medical Center, College of Life and Environmental Science, Central University for Nationalities) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Hyun (Department of Applied Plant Science, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Young (Department of Food Science, Jinju National University)
  • Published : 2009.03.31

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the free radical [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (${\cdot}OH$) and superoxide anion (${O_2}^-$)] scavenging activity of MeOH extract and 3 fractions of Citrus junos. Of the tested fractions, the BuOH fraction showed the strongest DPPH scavenging activity, showing the $IC_{50}$ values of 63.4 mg/mL. Therefore, we continuously carried out DPPH, ${\cdot}OH$ and ${O_2}^-$ scavenging activity tests of BuOH fraction of Citrus junos. The BuOH fraction of Citrus junos inhibited DPPH radical to 97.5% at a concentration of 1000 mg/mL and the scavenging activities were increased concentration-dependently. In addition, BuOH fraction from Citrus junos also scavenged ${\cdot}OH$ in a concentration dependent manner from 5 to 1000 mg/mL. Furthermore, BuOH fraction showed about 56% ${O_2}^-$-scavengimg activity at 25 mg/mL concentration but, the scavenging activities were not enhanced in a dose dependent manner. The present results suggest that BuOH fraction of Citrus junos would have the protective potential from oxidative stress induced by free radicals.

References

  1. Yu BP, Chung HY. 2001. Oxidative stress and vascular aging. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 54: S73-S80 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8227(01)00338-2
  2. Maxwell SR. 2000. Cornary artery disease-free radical damage, antioxidant protection and the role of homocystein. Basic Res Cardiol 95: I/65-I/71 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003950070012
  3. Ray G, Batra S, Shukla NK, Deo S, Raina V, Ashok S, Husain SA. 2000. Lipid peroxidation, free radical production and antioxidant status in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 59: 163-170 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006357330486
  4. Butterfield DA, Lauderback CM. 2002. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease brain: potential causes and consequences involving amyloid $\beta$-peptide-associated free radical oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 32: 1050-1060 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00794-3
  5. Surh YJ, Chun KS, Cha HH, Han SS, Keum YS, Park KK, Lee SS. 2001. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals: down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS through suppression of NF-kappa B activation. Mutat Res 480-481: 243-268 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00183-X
  6. Metsaars WP, Hauw JJ, van Welsem ME, Duyckaerts C. 2003. A grading system of Alzheimer disease lesions in neocortical areas. Neurobiol Aging 24: 563-572 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00134-3
  7. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative disease of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 7915-7922 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.17.7915
  8. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. 1996. Vegetables, fruits, and cancer prevention. J Am Diet Assoc 96: 1027-1039 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00273-8
  9. Chu YF, Sun J, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 50: 6910-6916 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020665f
  10. Liu RH. 2003. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78: 517S-520S https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.517S
  11. Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. 1996. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 275: 447-451 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.275.6.447
  12. Herman Z, Hasegawa S, Fong Chi H, OU P. 1989. Limonoids in Citrus ichangensis. J Agric Food Chem 37: 850-851 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00088a003
  13. Han DR. 1981. Hyundai Sang Yak Hak. Hak Chang Sa, Seoul, Korea. p 80-81
  14. Shin JH, Lee JY, Ju JC, Lee SJ, Cho HS, Sung NJ. 2005. Chemical properties and nitrite scavenging ability of citron (Citrus Junos). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 496-502 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.4.496
  15. Kwon OC, Shin JH, Kang MJ, Lee SJ, Choi SY, Sung NJ. 2006. Antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from citron (Citrus junos SIEB ex TANAKA) seed. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 294-300 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2006.35.3.294
  16. Chung SK, Osawa T, Kawakishi S. 1997. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects of spices and scavengers from brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Biosci Biotech Biochem 61: 118-123 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.61.118
  17. Robak J, Gryglewski RJ. 1988. Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem Pharmacol 37: 837-841 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(88)90169-4
  18. Slater TF. 1984. Free-radical mechanisms in tissue injury. Biochem J 222: 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2220001
  19. Vuillaume M. 1987. Reduced oxygen species, mutation, induction and cancer initiation. Mutat Res 186: 43-72 https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(87)90014-5
  20. Meneghini R. 1988. Genotoxicity of active oxygen species in mammalian cells. Mutat Res 195: 215-230 https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(88)90001-2
  21. Fraga CG, Shigenaga MK, Park JW, Degan P, Ames BN. 1990. Oxidative damage to DNA during aging: 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat organ DNA and urine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 4533-4537 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.12.4533
  22. Stadtman ER. 1992. Protein oxidation and aging. Science 257: 1220-1224 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1355616
  23. Halliwell B. Gutteridge JMC. 1999. Free radicals, other reactive species and disease. In Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. 3rd ed. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, eds. Oxford University Press, New York. p 246-350
  24. Machlin LJ, Bendich A. 1987. Free radical tissue damage: protective role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J 1: 441-445 https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.1.6.3315807
  25. Zhu QY, Hackman RM, Ensunsa JL, Holt RR, Keen CL. 2002. Antioxidant activities of oolong tea. J Agric Food Chem 50: 6929-6934 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0206163
  26. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. 1984. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 219: 1-14 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2190001
  27. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Cross CE. 1992. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: where are we now? J Lab Clin Med 119: 598-620
  28. Cho KJ, Han SH, Kim BY, Hwang SG, Park KK, Yang KH, Chung AS. 2000. Chlorophyllin suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 166: 120-127 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.2000.8958
  29. Meydani M, Lipman RD, Han SN, Wu D, Beharka A, Martin KR, Bronson R, Cao G, Smith D, Meydani SN. 1998. The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants. Ann NY Acad Sci 854: 352-360 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09915.x
  30. Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Posner BM, Ellison RC, Castelli WP, Wolf PA. 1995. Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. JAMA 273: 1113-1117 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.273.14.1113
  31. Shin JH, Lee SJ, Seo JK, Cheon EW, Sung NJ. 2008. Antioxidant activity of hot-water extract from Yuza (Citrus junos SIEB ex TANAKA) Peel. J Life Sci 18: 1745-1751 https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2008.18.12.1745
  32. Hatano T, Edamatsu R, Hiramatsu M, Mori A, Fujita Y, Yasuhara T, Yoshida T, Okuda T. 1989. Effects of the interaction of tannins with co-existing substances, VI. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxid anion radical, and on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical. Chem Pharm Bull 37: 2016-2021 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.37.2016
  33. Shimazaki H. 1994. Antioxidants. In Free Radicals and Biological Defense. Niki E, Shimazaki H, Mino M, eds. Japanese Science Societies Press, Tokyo. p 45-57
  34. Lin JM, Lin CC, Chen MF, Ujiie T, Takada A. 1995. Scavenging effects of Mallotus repandus on active oxygen species. J Ethnopharmacol 46: 175-181 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(95)01246-A
  35. Zhang D, Yasuda T, Yu Y, Zheng P, Kawabata T, Ma Y, Okada S. 1996. Ginseng extract scavenges hydroxyl radical and protects unsaturated fatty acids from decomposition caused by iron-mediated lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 20: 145-150 https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)02020-9