DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Antioxidant Activity of Solubilized Tetraselmis suecica and Chlorella ellipsoidea by Enzymatic Digests

  • Lee, Seung-Hong (Faculty of Applied Marine Science, Jeju National University) ;
  • Chang, Dong-Uk (Marine Bioprocess Co. Ltd., Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Bae-Jin (Marine Bioprocess Co. Ltd., Pukyong National University) ;
  • Jeon, You-Jin (Faculty of Applied Marine Science, Jeju National University)
  • Published : 2009.03.31

Abstract

In this study, we focused on natural water-soluble antioxidants from Tetraselmis suecica (T. suecica) and Chlorella ellipsoidea (C. ellipsoidea). They were prepared by enzymatic digestion using five carbohydrases (Viscozyme, Celluclast, AMG, Termamyl and Ultraflo) and five proteases (Protamex, Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase, and Kojizyme), and the potential antioxidant activity of each was assessed. Most enzymatic digests from T. suecica had a higher radical scavenging activity than those from C. ellipsoidea. Among the enzymatic digests, Kojizyme digest from T. suecica exhibited the highest effect on DPPH radical scavenging. Viscozyme (30.2%) and Neutrase (34.6%) digests from T. suecica exhibited higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Kojizyme digest from T. suecica (81.5%) had strong alkyl radical scavenging activity. Neutrase (61.9%) and Kojizyme (61.5%) digest from T. suecica possessed the highest effects on hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Among the tested samples, Neutrase (TN) and Kojizyme (TK) digests from T. suecica showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, alkyl radical, hydrogen peroxide). Therefore, TN and TK digests were selected for use in the further experiments. Those digests showed enhanced cell viability against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative damage, and relatively good hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity in an African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line. These results suggested that an enzymatic digestion will be an effective way for the production of a potential water-soluble antioxidant from a microalgae, T. suecica.

References

  1. Cox DA, Cohen ML. 1996. Effects of oxidized low density lipoproteins on vascular contraction and relaxation. Pharmacol Rev 48: 3-9
  2. Ames B. 1998. Micronutrients prevent cancer and delay aging. Toxicol Lett 102: 5-18 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00269-0
  3. Sherwin ER. 1990. Antioxidants. In Food Additives. Branen AI, Davidson PM, Salminen S, eds. Marcel Dekker, New York
  4. Lindenschmidt RC, Trika AF, Guard ME, Witschi HP. 1986. The effect of dietary butylated hydroxy toluene on liver and colon tumor development in mice. Toxicol 38: 151-160 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-483X(86)90116-2
  5. Buyukokuroglu M.E, Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kufrevioglu OI. 2001. In vitro antioxidant properties of dantrolene sodium. Pharmacol Res 44: 491-495 https://doi.org/10.1006/phrs.2001.0890
  6. Shahidi F, Wanasundara PKJPD. 1992. Phenolic anti-oxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 32: 67-103 https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399209527581
  7. Fuentes MMR, Fernandez GGA, Perez JAS, Guerrero JLG. 2000. Biomass nutrient profiles of the microalga Porphyridium cruentum. Food Chem 70: 345-353 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00101-1
  8. Brown MR. 1991. The amino-acid and sugar composition of 16 species of microalgae used in mariculture. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 145: 79-99 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(91)90007-J
  9. Chu FE, Dupuy JL, Webb KL. 1982. Polysaccharide composition of five algal species used as food for larvae of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Aquaculture 29: 241-252 https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(82)90138-7
  10. Campo JAD, Moreno J, Rodriguez H, Vargas MA, Rivas J, Guerrero MG. 2000. Carotenoid content of chlorophycean microalgae: factors determing lutin accumulation in Muriellopsis sp. (Chlorophata). J Biotech 76: 51-59 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00178-9
  11. Kim SK, Jeon YJ, Kim WK, Back HC, Park PJ, Byun HG, Bai SC. 2001. Biochemical composition of marine microalgae and their potential antimicrobial activity. J Fish Sci Tech 4: 75-83
  12. Kang MS, Sim SJ, Chae HJ. 2004. Chlorella as a functional biomaterial. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 19: 1-11
  13. Heo SJ, Lee KW, Song CB, Jeon YJ. 2003. Antioxidant activity of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds. Algae 18: 71-81 https://doi.org/10.4490/ALGAE.2003.18.1.071
  14. AOAC. 1995. Official Method of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC international, Virginia, USA
  15. Nanjo F, Goto K, Seto R, Suzuki M, Sakai M, Hara Y. 1996. Scavenging effects of tea catechins and their derivatives on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylydrazyl radical. Free Radical Biol Med 21: 895-902 https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(96)00237-7
  16. Rosen GM, Rauckman EJ. 1984. Spin trapping of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. In Methods in Enzymology. Packer L, ed. Academic Press, Orlando
  17. Muller HE. 1985. Detection of hydrogen peroxide produced by Microorganism on ABTS-peroxidase medium. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobio Hyg 259: 151-158
  18. Mosmann T. 1983. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Meth 65: 55-63 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4
  19. Benedettia S, Benvenutia F, Pagliarania S, Francoglia S, Scogliob S, Canestraria F. 2004. Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Life Sci 75: 2353-2362 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2004.06.004
  20. Janzen EG, Towner RA, Haire DL. 1987. Detection of free radicals generated from the in vitro metabolism of carbon tetrachloride using improved ESR spin trapping techniques. Free Radical Res Com 3: 357-364 https://doi.org/10.3109/10715768709088076
  21. Auddy B, Ferreira M, Blasina F, Lafon L, Arredondo F, Dajas F, Tripathi PC, Seal T, Mukherjee B. 2003. Screening of antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 84: 131-138 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00322-7
  22. Karawita R, Senevirathne M, Athukorala Y, Affan A, Lee YJ, Kim SK, Lee JB, Jeon YJ. 2007. Protective effect of enzymatic extracts from microalgae against DNA damage induced by $H_2O_2$. Mar Biotechnol 9: 479-490 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-007-9007-3
  23. Soares JR, Dins TCP, Cunha AP, Ameida LM. 1997. Antioxidant activity of some extracts of Thymus zygis. Free Radic Res 26: 469-478 https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769709084484
  24. Lu Y, Foo LY. 2000. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chem 68: 81-85 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00167-3
  25. Spitz TT, Bergman M, Moppes D, Grossman S, Arad MS. 2005. Antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. J App Phycol 17: 215-222 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-005-0679-7
  26. Adebajo MO, Gesser HD. 2001. ESR study of alkyl radicals adsorbed on porpus Vycor glass I. Build-up of methyl and ethyl radicals. Appl Surf Sci 171: 120-124 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(00)00551-1
  27. Rosenkranz AR, Schmaldienst S, Stuhlmeier KM, Chen W, Knapp W, Zlabinger GJ. 1992. A microplate assay for the detection of oxidative products using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate. J Immunol Methods 156: 39-45 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(92)90008-H
  28. Siriwardhana N, Jeon YJ, Kim SH, Ha JH, Heo SJ, Lee KW. 2004. Enzymatic hydrolysis for effective extraction of antioxidative compounds from Hizikia fusiformis. Algae 19: 59-68 https://doi.org/10.4490/ALGAE.2004.19.1.059
  29. Athukorala Y, Jung WK, Vasanthan T, Jeon YJ. 2006. An anticoagulative polysaccharide from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Ecklonia cava. Carb Pol 66: 184-191 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.03.002
  30. Heo SJ, Park EJ, Lee KW, Jeon YJ. 2005. Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds. Bioresour Technol 96: 1613-1623 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.07.013
  31. Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kufreviocglu O, Aslan A. 2002. Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria islandica (L). Ach J Ethnopharmacol 79: 325-329 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00396-8
  32. Aruoma OI. 1998. Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75: 199-212 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0032-9
  33. Brown MR, Jeffrey SW. 1992. Biochemical composition of microalgae from the green algal classes Chlorophyceae and Prasinophyceae. 1. Amino acids, sugars and pigments. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 161: 91-113 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(92)90192-D
  34. Chandler SF, Dodds JH. 1983. The effect of phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of phenolics and solasidine in callus cultures of Solanum laciniatum. Plant Cell Rep 2: 105-110 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00270105
  35. Hiramoto K, Johkoh H, Sako KI, Kikugawa K. 1993. DNA breaking activity of the carbon-centered radical generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH). Free Radical Res Com 19: 323-332 https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769309056521
  36. Hirata T, Tanaka M, Ooike M, Tsunomura T, Sakaguchi M. 2000. Antioxidant activities of phycocyanobilin prepared from Spirulina platensis. J Appl Phycol 12: 435-439 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008175217194
  37. Lee SH, Karawita R, Affan A, Lee JB, Lee BJ, Jeon YJ. 2008. Potential antioxidant activities of enzymatic digests from benthic diatoms Achnanthes longipes, Amphora coffeaeformis, and Navicula sp. (Bacillariophyceae). J Food Sci Nutr 13: 166-175 https://doi.org/10.3746/jfn.2008.13.3.166
  38. Siriwardhana N, Lee KW, Kim SH, Ha JW, Jeon YJ. 2003. Antioxidant activiy of Hizikia fusiformis on reactive oxygen species scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Food Sci Tech Int 9: 339-346 https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013203039014
  39. Halliweill B. 1991. Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. Ame J Medicine 91: 14-19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(91)90279-7

Cited by

  1. Purification and determination of two novel antioxidant peptides from flounder fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) using digestive proteases vol.52, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.058
  2. Effect of Mg, Si, and Sr on growth and antioxidant activity of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica vol.24, pp.5, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-011-9764-2
  3. Protective effect of a novel antioxidative peptide purified from a marine Chlorella ellipsoidea protein against free radical-induced oxidative stress vol.50, pp.7, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.04.022
  4. Antioxidant Activity of Purified Protein Hydrolysates from Northern Whiting Fish (Sillago sihama) Muscle vol.20, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-013-9384-6
  5. A novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from a marine Chlorella ellipsoidea and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats vol.47, pp.12, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2012.07.015