An Investigation on the Technical Background for Carbon-14 Monitoring in Radioactive Effluents

원자력시설의 Carbon-14 방사성유출물에 대한 감시배경의 조사

  • Published : 2009.12.30

Abstract

effluents to the environment. The activity of carbon-14, one of the radioactive effluents, in the environment is already high level and its effect on radiation exposure to the public and the environment is insignificant; thus, NPPs did not perform the carbon-14 monitoring in effluents in the past. By the way, effluents of noble gas and particulate radioactive materials originated from nuclear fuels has been continuously reduced due to both the advancement of manufacturing and integrity technology for nuclear fuels and the improvement of operation methods of NPPs. Futhermore, the portion of dose assessment by tritium and carbon-14 to the public has been relatively increased because the lower limit of detection for low-energy beta sources, such as tritium and carbon-14, is low due to the advancement of radiation detection technology. In this paper, the technical background for carbon-14 monitoring in nuclear facilities was investigated using United States technical reports and papers. This paper also reviews whether carbon-14 monitoring is necessary or not based on the investigated documents.

References

  1. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Carbon-14 in the Environment. NCRP Report No. 81. 1985
  2. 한국수력원자력(주). 방사선관리연보. 2008
  3. 한국수력원자력(주). 원자력발전소 주변 환경방사능조사 및 평가보고서. 2008
  4. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors. US NRC. NUREG-0017. 1976
  5. Oak Ridge national Laboratory. Cabon-14 Production in Nuclear Reactors. ORNL/NUREG/TM-12. 1977
  6. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Public Health Consideration of Carbon-14 Discharges from the Light-Water Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Industry. US EPA. ORP/TAD-76-3. 1976
  7. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Impact Assessment of Carbon-14 Emissions from Normal Operations of Uranium Fuel Cycle Facilities. EPA-520/5-80-004. 1981
  8. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes and Releases of Radioactive Materials in Liquid and Gaseous Effluents from Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants. US NRC. Regulatory Guide 1.21. 1974
  9. Killough GG, Rohwer PS. A New Look at the Dosimetry of C-14 Released to the Atmosphere as Carbon Dioxide. Health Physics 1978;34:141-159 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-197802000-00002
  10. Kunz C. C-14 Discharges at Three Light-Water Reactors. Health Physics 1985;49:25-35 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198507000-00002
  11. Indian Point Nuclear Power Plants Unit 3. Offsite Dose Calculation Manual and Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report. 2001
  12. Indian Point Nuclear Power Plants Unit 3. Radioactive Effluent Report (Radiological Impact on Man). Docket No. 50-286(NL-03-074). 2002
  13. Sejkora K. Carbon-14 Monitoring in the United States. Proceeding of the 10th Annual RETS-REMP Workshop. 2001
  14. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Review of the Release of Carbon-14 in Gaseous Form from High-Level Waste Disposal. US EPA. EPA-SAB-RAC-93-010. 1993
  15. 한전 전력연구원, 공무국외여행보고서 - 미국원전의 방사선감시계통 성능평가 및 경보설정 기술현황 조사. TC.00NE20.O2001.363. 2001
  16. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Calculation of Annual Doses to Man from Routine Releases of Reactor Effluents for the the Purpose of Evaluating Compliance with 10 CFR Part 50. US NRC. Regulatory Guide 1.109. Appendix I. 1977
  17. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes and Releases of Radioactive Materials in Liquid and Gaseous Effluents from Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants. US RC. DG-1186 for Regulatory Guide 1.21. 2008
  18. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes and Releases of Radioactive Materials in Liquid and Gaseous Effluents from Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants. USNRC. Regulatory Guide 1.21. 2009
  19. International Atomic Energy Agency. Generic Models for Use in Assessing the Impact of Discharges of Radioactive Substances to the Environment. IAEA. Safety Series No. 19. 2001
  20. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority. Carbon-14 in Nordic BWRs - Production and Chemical Forms. SSI Report P1294.01. 2002
  21. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority. Review of C-14 Inventory for SFR Facility. SSI Report 2002:14. 2002
  22. Canadian Standards Association. Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities. CAN/CSAN288.1-M87. 1987
  23. Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection of Canada. Report of a Working Group of the ACRP - The Management of Carbon-14 in Canadian Nuclear Facilities. ACRP-14. 1995