In vitro Antioxidative Activities and Phenolic Composition of Hot Water Extract from Different Parts of Cudrania tricuspidata

  • Jeong , Chang-Ho (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Choi, Gwi-Nam (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Ji-Hye (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kwak, Ji-Hyun (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Heo, Ho-Jin (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Shim, Ki-Hwan (Division of Applied Life Sciences, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Cho, Bok-Rai (Green Light Village Agricultural Farmer Association) ;
  • Bae, Young-Il (Bio 21 Center) ;
  • Choi, Jine-Shang (Department of Food Science, Jinju National University)
  • 발행 : 2009.12.31


We evaluated total phenolics and antioxidative activities of water extracts from different parts of Cudrania tricuspidata (specifically, the leaves, stems, roots, and fruits). The antioxidative activities of these samples were determined using five methods, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging, reducing power, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and $\beta$-carotene/linoleic acid system. The water extract of leaves exhibited the higher DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, reducing power, and FRAP than water extract of stem, roots, and fruits. Inhibition values on linoleic oxidation of water extracts from leaves, stems, roots, and fruits were calculated as 45.98%, 33.03%, 39.73%, and 25.48% at 10 mg/mL, respectively. The water extract of C. tricuspidata leaves had the highest amount of toal phenolics (73.60$\pm$0.28 mg/g). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that quercetin is the predominant phenolic compound in water extract of leaves. Thus, our study verified that the water extract of leaves has strong antioxidant activities which are correlated with its high level of phenolic compounds, particularly quercetin. This water extract of C. tricuspidata leaves can be used as an effective and safe source of antioxidants.


  1. Scalbert A, Williamson G. 2000. Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130: 2073S-2085S
  2. Fresco P, Borges F, Diniz C, Marques MPM. 2006. New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Med Res Rev 26: 747-766
  3. Siquet C, Paiva Martins F, Lima JLFC, Feis S, Borges F. 2006. Antioxidant profile of dihydroxy- and trihydroxyphenolic acids: A structure-activity relationship study. Free Radic Res 40: 433-442
  4. Calliste CA, Trouillas P, Allais DP, Duroux JL. 2005. Castanea sativa Mill. leaves as new sources of natural antioxidant: An electronic spin resonance study. J Agric Food Chem 53: 282-288
  5. Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P. 2000. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer 36: 636-646
  6. Mccullough ML, Bandera EV, Patel R, Patel AV, Gansler T, Kushi LH, Thun MJ, Calle EE. 2007. A prospective study of fruits, vegetables, and risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol 166: 902-911
  7. Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G. 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 18: 872-879
  8. Park KH, Park YD, Han JM, Im KR, Lee BW, Jeong IY, Jeong TS, Lee WS. 2006. Anti-atheroclerotic and anti-inflammatory activities of catecholic xanthones and flavonoids isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16: 5580-5583
  9. Zou YS, Hou AJ, Zhu GF, Chen YF, Sun HD, Zhao QS. 2004. Cytotoxic isoprenylated xanthones from Cudrania tricuspidata. Bioorg Med Chem 12: 1947-1953
  10. Seo EJ, Curtis-Long MJ, Lee BW, Kim HY, Ryu YB, Jeong TS, Lee WS, Park KH. 2007. Xanthones from Cudrania tricuspidata displaying potent α-glucosidase inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17: 6421-6424
  11. Fukai T, Yonekawa M, Hou AJ, Momura T, Sun HD, Uno J. 2003. Antifungal agents from the roots of Cudrania cochinchinensis against Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus species. J Nat Prod 66: 118-1120
  12. Chang CH, Lin CC, Hattori M, Namba T. 1994. Effects on anti-lipid peroxidation of Cudrania cochinchinensis var. gerontogea. J Ethnophamacol 44: 79-85
  13. Lee BW, Lee JH, Gal SW, Moo YH, Park KH. 2006. Selective ABTS radical-scavenging activity of prenylated flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70: 427-432
  14. Lee BW, Lee JH, Lee ST, Lee HS, Lee WS, Jeong TS, Park KH. 2005. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of xanthones from Cudrania tricuspidata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 15: 5548-5552
  15. Zou YS, Hou AJ, Zhu GF. 2005. Isoprenylated xanthones and flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata. Chem Biodivers 2: 131-138
  16. Rho YH, Yoon SH, Kim EK, Kang JY, Lee BW, Park KH, Bae YS. 2007. 2',5,7-Trihydroxy-4',5'-(2,2-dimethylchromeno)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl) flavanone purified from Cudrania tricuspidata induces apoptotic cell death of human leukemia U937 cells. Nat Prod Res 21: 616-624
  17. Blois MA. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200
  18. Fellegrin N, Ke R, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay. Method Enzymol 299: 379-389
  19. Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction: Antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44: 307-315
  20. Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239: 70-76
  21. Koleva II, van Beek TA, Linssen JPH, de Groot A, Evastatieva LN. 2002. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal 13: 8-17
  22. Kim DO, Jeong SW, Lee CY. 2003. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem 81: 321-326
  23. Wang H, Helliwell K. 2001. Determination of flavonols in green and black tea leaves and green tea infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Res Intern 34: 223-227
  24. Bae SK, Lee YC, Kim HW. 2001. The browning reaction and inhibition of apple concentrated juice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 6-13
  25. Satpute RM, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF. 2009. Protection of PC12 cells from chemical ischemia induced oxidative stress by Fagonia arabica. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 2689-2695
  26. Robards K, Prenzeler PD, Tucker G, Swatsitang P, Glover W. 1999. Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative process in fruits. Food Chem 66: 401-436
  27. Pyo YH, Lee TC, Logendra L, Rosen RT. 2004. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subspecies cycla) extracts. Food Chem 85: 19-26
  28. Chung YC, Chien CT, Teng KY, Chou ST. 2006. Antioxidative and mutagenic properties of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb & zucc. Food Chem 97: 418-425
  29. Chun OK, Kim DO, Moon HY, Kang HG, Lee CY. 2003. Contribution of individual polyphenolics to total antioxidant capacity of plums. J Agric Food Chem 51: 7240- 7245
  30. Zheng W, Wang SY. 2001. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J Agric Food Chem 49: 5165-5170
  31. Awika JM, Rooney LW, Wu X, Prior RL, Cisneros- Zevallos L. 2003. Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products. J Agric Food Chem 51: 6657-6662
  32. Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F. 2006. Antioxidant properties of commercial soft and hard winter wheats (Triticum aestivum L) and their milling fractions. J Sci Food Agric 86: 477-485
  33. Jeong CH, Choi GN, Kim JH, Kwak JH, Kang ST, Choi SG, Heo HJ. 2009. In vitro antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of Korean commercial vinegars. Food Sci Biotechnol 18: 1258-1262

피인용 문헌

  1. DNA Protection and Antioxidant Potential of Chestnut Shell Extracts vol.40, pp.1, 2016,
  2. Improved functionality of fermented milk is mediated by the synbiotic interaction between Cudrania tricuspidata leaf extract and Lactobacillus gasseri strains vol.100, pp.13, 2016,
  3. Anti-metastatic Effects on B16F10 Melanoma Cells of Extracts and Two Prenylated Xanthones Isolated from Maclura amboinensis Bl. Roots vol.13, pp.7, 2012,
  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice vol.18, pp.6, 2013,
  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Hericium erinaceus Water Extracts vol.21, pp.2, 2013,
  6. Chemical Components and Anti-oxidant Activities of Black Currant vol.19, pp.2, 2012,
  9. Evaluation of Synurus deltoides for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-proliferative activities using In vitro assays vol.23, pp.6, 2014,
  10. Topical Application of Cudrania tricuspidata Stem Extract Inhibits Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in an NC/Nga Mouse Model: An Experimental Animal Study vol.07, pp.08, 2016,
  11. Optimization of roasting conditions through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Yak-kong (Rhynchosia nulubilis) vol.25, pp.4, 2016,
  12. Antioxidant Activity and Main Volatile Flavor Components of Mulberry Wine Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8 vol.43, pp.7, 2014,
  13. Antioxidant activity of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit extracts vol.128, pp.3, 2011,
  14. DNA Protection, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Potential of the MushroomRussula Virescens vol.38, pp.1, 2014,
  15. Cudrania tricuspidata: an updated review on ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology vol.7, pp.51, 2017,
  16. Identification of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of Aloe barbadensis flower extracts 2017,
  17. The Effects of Aronia melanocarpa ‘Viking’ Extracts in Attenuating RANKL-Induced Osteoclastic Differentiation by Inhibiting ROS Generation and c-FOS/NFATc1 Signaling vol.23, pp.3, 2018,