Studies on the Spatial Analysis for Distribution Estimation of Radon Concentration at the Seoul Area

서울지역 라돈농도의 분포예측을 위한 공간분석법 연구

  • Baek, Seung-A (College of Environment & Applied Chemistry and Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Lee, Tae-Jung (College of Environment & Applied Chemistry and Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Shin-Do (Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Sool (College of Environment & Applied Chemistry and Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University)
  • 백승아 (경희대학교 환경.응용화학대학 대기오염연구실 및 환경연구센터) ;
  • 이태정 (경희대학교 환경.응용화학대학 대기오염연구실 및 환경연구센터) ;
  • 김신도 (서울시립대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 김동술 (경희대학교 환경.응용화학대학 대기오염연구실 및 환경연구센터)
  • Published : 2008.10.31


Radon is an invisible, odorless, and radioactive gas. It is formed by the disintegration of radium, which is a decay product of uranium. Some amounts of radon gas and its products are present ubiquitously in the soil, water, and air. Particularly high radon levels occur in regions of high uranium content. Although radon is permeable into indoor environment not only through geological features (bed rock and permeability) but also through the construction materials and underground water, the radiation from the geological features is generally main exposure factor. So there can be a problem in a certain space such as the underground and/or relatively poor ventilation condition. In this study, a GIS technique was used in order to investigate spatial distribution of radon measured from sub- way stations of 1 thru 8 in Seoul, Korea in 1991, 1998, 2001, and 2006. Spatial analysis was applied to reproduce the radon distribution. We utilized spatial analysis techniques such as inverse distance weighted averaging (IDW) and kriging techniques which are widely used to relate between different spatial points. To validate the results from the analyses, the jackknife technique for an uncertainty test was performed. When the number of measuring sites was less than 100 and also when the number of omitted sites increased, the kriging technique was better than IDW. On the other hand, when the number of sites was over 100, IDW technique was better than kriging technique. Thus the selection of analytical tool was affected sensitives by the analysis based on the number of measuring sites.


Radon;GIS;Spatial analysis;IDW;Kriging


  1. 최종근(2004) 공간정보 모델링-크리깅과 최적화 기법, 구미 서관
  2. Akula, A. (1998) On the use of kriging in the spatial analysis of acid precipitation data, Atmospheric Environment, 22(9), 1963-1975
  3. Crameri, R. and W. Burkart (1989) Radon problem, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 34(2), 251-259
  4. Fotheringham, A.S., C. Brunsdon, and M. Charlton (2000) Quantitative Geography: Perspective on Spatial Data Analysis, London: Sage Publications
  5. Kim, D.S. and Y.S. Kim (1993) Distribution of airborne radon concentrations in Seoul metropolitan subway station, Health Physics, 65(1), 12-16
  6. Ripley, B.D. (1981) Spatial Statistics, John Wiley & Sons
  7. World Health Organization (2006)
  8. 김동술, 김윤신, 김신도, 신응배, 김성천, 유정석 (1993) 서울 시 지하철역내의 라돈 농도분포 및 저감대책, 한국대기보전학회지, 9(4), 271-277
  9. 차동원(2002) 압력차에 의한 지하실의 실내 라돈농도 변화 와 토양가스분석 Test-Cell Study (II), 환경관리학회지, 8(1), 59-65
  10. 황인조, 한근혁, 최형욱, 김동술, 김신도(2001) 서울시 지하철 역사내 라돈의 농도분포, 환경연구논문집, 경희대 학교, 10, 1-10
  11. Crawford, D.J. (1992) Cancer risk from radon, J. AWMA, 77-81
  12. Miller, R.G. (1974) The jackknife-A review, Biometrica, 61, 1-71
  13. 김영식 (2005) 건물 층별에 따른 라돈농도에 관한 연구, 한국환경보건학회지, 31(1), 94-98
  14. 서울시 지하철공사(1998) 서울시 지하철 환경개선 방안 연 구
  15. 윤훈주(1997) GIS를 이용한 강하분진 중 금속원소의 공간 분포 분석, 한국대기보전학회지, 13(6), 463-474
  16. 한국자원연구소 (1999) 서울-남천점 지질도폭 설명서, 과학 기술부, KR-99(S)-1
  17. Salih, I., H.B.L. Pettersson, A. Sivertun, and E. Lund (2002) Spatial correlation between radon (222-Rn) in ground water and bedrock uranium (238U), GIS geostatistical analyses, J. of Spatial Hydrology, 2(2), 1- 10
  18. Singh, S., R. Maehra, and K. Singh (2005) Seasonal variation of indoor radon in dwellings of Malwa region, Punkab, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 7761-7767
  19. Sesana, L., E. Carproli, and G.M. Marcazzan (2003) Long period study of outdoor radon concentration in Milan and correlation between its temporal variations and dispersion properties of atmosphere, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 65, 147-160
  20. ESRI (2006) ArcGIS 8 Using ArcGis Geostatistical Analyst
  21. Appleton, J.D. (2005) Radon in air and water. In Essentials of Medical Geology, Impacts of the Natural Environment on Public Health (Selinus, O., B. Alloway, J. Centero, R. Finkelman, R. Fuge, U. Lindh, and P. Smedley Eds), Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 227- 262
  22. Bailey, T.C. (1994) A Review of Statistical Spatial Snalysis in Geographical Information System, London: Taylor and Francis
  23. Burkart, W., M. Sohrabi, and A. Bayer (2002) High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas: Radiation Dose and Health Effects. Elsevier Science B.V
  24. Matheron, G. (1971) The Theory of Regionalized Variables and its Applications, Ecole des mines de Paris; Fontainebleau, France
  25. Ioannidex, K., C. Papachristodoulou, K. Stamoulis, D. Karamanis, S. Pavlides, A. Chatzipetros, and E. Karakala (2003) Soil gas radon: a tool for exploring active fault zones, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 59, 205-213
  26. EPA (1992) A Citizen's Guide to Radon: EPA, ANR-464, 4022-K-92-001
  27. Falke, S.R. and R.B. Husar (1996) Uncertainty in the Spatial Interpolation of Ozone Monitoring Data, U.S.A., CAPITA

Cited by

  1. Characterizing Par ticle Matter on the Main Section of the Seoul Subway Line-2 and Developing Fine Particle Pollution Map vol.32, pp.2, 2016,
  2. Indoor Radon Risk Assessment by Applying Measurement Concentrations and Exposure Times for Military Facilities and Underground Shopping Malls near Subway stations vol.42, pp.5, 2016,