Nutrient intake and bone health status of Korean male college students as related to smoking situations

  • Bae, Yun-Jung ;
  • Cho, Hye-Kyung ;
  • Kim, Mi-Hyun
  • Published : 2008.09.30

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density(BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: non smoker(n=42), light smoker(n=34), moderate smoker(n=49) and heavy smoker(n=36). The anthropometric characteristics, smoking situations, dietary habits and nutrient intakes were observed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound(QUS). Bone metabolism markers including serum alkaline phosphatase activity(ALP) and N-mid osteocalcin(OC) were analyzed. There were no significant differences in height, weight, BMI, energy and calcium intake among the four groups. Iron intake of moderate and heavy smoker was significantly lower than that of light smoker. Heavy smokers consumed significantly lower vitamin C than moderate smokers, and their coffee consumption and lifetime alcohol consumption were significantly highest among the 4 groups. QUS parameters and serum ALP were not significantly different among the four groups. Serum OC levels were significantly lower in heavy and non smoker group compared to the moderate smoker group. In conclusion, heavy smokers in young male collegians had undesirable lifestyle and dietary habits, like as high consumption of coffee and alcohol, and low intake of Fe and vitamin C. Although, there was no significant difference in their current bone status from the other groups, these undesirable factors with heavy smoking may affect their bone health in the long term.

Keywords

Smoking;bone status;osteocalcin;male collegian

References

  1. Korean ministry of health and welfare (2006). Report on 2005 national health and nutrition survey: Health Behavior Survey. p.113. Kukjingihoek, Seoul. Republic of Korea
  2. Legrand E, Chappard D, Pascaretti C, Duquenne M, Rondeau C, Simon Y, Rohmer V, Basle MF & Audran M (1999). Bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in men. Osteoporos Int 10:265-270 https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980050225
  3. Medras M, Jankowska EA & Rogucka E (2000). The effect of smoking tobacco and drinking of alcohol and coffee on bone mineral density of healthy men 40 years of age. Pol Arch Med Wewn 103:187-193
  4. Pluskiewicz W & Drozdzowska B (1999) Ultrasound measurements at the calcaneus in men: differences between healthy and fractured persons and the influence of age and anthropometric features on ultrasound parameters. Osteoporos Int 10:47-51 https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980050193
  5. Lorentzon M, Mellstrom D, Haug E & Ohlsson C (2007). Smoking is associated with lower bone mineral density and reduced cortical thickness in young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:497-503 https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-1294
  6. Kwak CS, Lee JW & Hyun WJ (2000). The effect of smoking and alcohol drinking on nutritional status and eating habits in adults males. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition 5:161-171
  7. Laroche M, Lasne Y, Felez A, Moulinier L, Bon E, Cantagrel A, Leophonte P & Mazieres B (1994). Osteocalcin and smoking. Rev Rhum Ed Fr 61:433-436
  8. Seeman E, Melton LJ 3rd, O'Fallon WM & Riggs BL (1983). Risk factors for spinal osteoporosis in men. Am J Med 75:977-983 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(83)90878-1
  9. Benson BW & Shulman JD (2005). Inclusion of tobacco exposure as a predictive factor for decreased bone mineral content. Nicotine Tob Res 7:719-724 https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200500259119
  10. Prockop DJ (1971). Role of iron in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissue. Fed Proc 30:984-990
  11. Law MR & Hackshaw AK (1997). A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ 315:841-846 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7112.841
  12. Ortego-Centeno N, Munoz-Torres M, Jodar E, Hernandez-Quero J, Jurado-Duce A & de la Higuera Torres-Puchol J (1997). Effect of tobacco consumption on bone mineral density in healthy young males. Calcif Tissue Int 60:496-500 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002239900270
  13. Dallongeville J, Marecaux N, Fruchart JC & Amouyel P (1998). Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of nutrient intake: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 128:1450-1457
  14. Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Gennari L, Montagnani A, Caffarelli C, Merlotti D, Rossi S, Cadirni A & Nuti R (2005). Quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the prediction of fragility fracture in men. Osteoporos Int 16:963-968 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-004-1771-6
  15. Sakamoto W, Nishihira J, Fujie K, Iizuka T, Handa H, Ozaki M & Yukawa S (2001). Effect of coffee consumption on bone metabolism. Bone 28:332-336 https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(00)00444-0
  16. Massey LK & Whiting SJ (1993). Caffeine, urinary calcium, calcium metabolism and bone. J Nutr 123:1611-1614
  17. Lloveras G, Ribas Barba L, Ramon JM, Serra Majem L & Roman Vinas B (2001). Food consumption and nutrient intake in relation to smoking. Med Clin 116:129-132 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-7753(01)71747-2
  18. Medeiros DM, Ilich JZ, Ireton J, Matkovic V, Shiry L & Wildman R (1997). Femurs from rats fed diets deficient in copper or iron have decreased mechanical strength and altered mineral composition. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 10:197-203 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-670X(1997)10:3<197::AID-JTRA7>3.0.CO;2-8
  19. De Vernejoul MC, Bielakoff J, Herve M, Gueris J, Hott M, Modrowski D, Kuntz D, Miravet L & Ryckewaert A (1983). Evidence for defective osteoblastic function. A role for alcohol and tobacco consumption in osteoporosis in middle-aged men. Clin Orthop Relat Res 179:107-115
  20. Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, O'Connell MA, Muniz G, Laskey MA, Yan L, Prentice A & Ginty F (2006). Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 83:1420-1428 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1420
  21. Spencer H & Kramer L (1986). NIH Consensus Conference: osteoporosis. Factors contributing to osteoporosis. J Nutr 116:316-319 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/116.2.316
  22. Grainge MJ, Coupland CA, Cliffe SJ, Chilvers CE & Hosking DJ (1998). Cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. The Nottingham EPIC Study Group. Osteoporos Int 8:355-363 https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980050075
  23. Ramp WK, Lenz LG & Galvin RJ (1991). Nicotine inhibits collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity, but stimulates DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 197:36-43
  24. Supervia A, Nogues X, Enjuanes A, Vila J, Mellibovsky L, Serrano S, Aubia J & Diez-Perez A (2006). Effect of smoking and smoking cessation on bone mass, bone remodeling, vitamin D, PTH and sex hormones. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 6:234-241
  25. Hoidrup S, Gronbaek M, Gottschau A, Lauritzen JB & Schroll M (1999). Alcohol intake, beverage preference, and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies. Am J Epidemiol 149:993-1001 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009760
  26. Saules KK, Pomerleau CS, Snedecor SM, Mehringer AM, Shadle MB, Kurth C & Krahn DD (2004). Relationship of onset of cigarette smoking during college to alcohol use, dieting concerns, and depressed mood: results from the Young Women's Health Survey. Addict Behav 29:893-899 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.015
  27. Field M, Mogg K & Bradley BP (2005). Alcohol increases cognitive biases for smoking cues in smokers. Psychopharmacology 180:63-72
  28. Szulc P, Garnero P, Claustrat B, Marchand F, Duboeuf F & Delmas PD (2002). Increased bone resorption in moderate smokers with low body weight: the Minos study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:666-674 https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.87.2.666
  29. Ilich JZ & Kerstetter JE (2000). Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 19:715-737 https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2000.10718070
  30. Kim SK, Yeon BY & Choi MK (2003). Comparison of nutrient intakes and serum mineral levels between smoker and non-smokers. The Korean Journal of Nutrition 36:635-645
  31. Vogel JM, Davis JW, Nomura A, Wasnich RD & Ross PD (1997). The effects of smoking on bone mass and the rates of bone loss among elderly Japanese-American men. J Bone Miner Res 12:1495-1501 https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1997.12.9.1495
  32. Angus RM, Sambrook PN, Pocock NA & Eisman JA (1988). Dietary intake and bone mineral density. Bone Miner 4:265-277
  33. Gambert SR, Schultz BM & Hamdy RC (1995). Osteoporosis. Clinical features, prevention, and treatment. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 24:317-371
  34. Grazio S, Korsic M & Jajic I (2005). Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on vertebral deformity in the elderly-an epidemiological study. Coll Antropol 29:567-572
  35. Dyer AR, Elliott P, Stamler J, Chan Q, Ueshima H & Zhou BF; INTERMAP Research Group (2003). Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: the INTERMAP study. J Hum Hypertens 17:641-654 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001607
  36. Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ & Christiansen C (1991). Potential risk factors for development of postmenopausal osteoporosisexamined over a 12-year period. Osteoporos Int 1:95-102 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01880450
  37. Melton LJ 3rd, Atkinson EJ, O'Connor MK, O'Fallon WM & Riggs BL (1998). Bone density and fracture risk in men. J Bone Miner Res 13:1915-1923 https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.12.1915
  38. Midgette AS, Baron JA & Rohan TE (1993). Do cigarette smokers have diets that increase their risks of coronary heart disease and cancer? Am J Epidemiol 137:521-529 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116705
  39. Rubin LA, Hawker GA, Peltekova VD, Fielding LJ, Ridout R & Cole DE (1999). Determinants of peak bone mass: clinical and genetic analyses in a young female Canadian cohort. J Bone Miner Res 14:633-643 https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.4.633
  40. Webb MS & Carey MP (2008). Tobacco smoking among low-income Black women: demographic and psychosocial correlates in a community sample. Nicotine Tob Res 10:219-229 https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200701767845